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We describe a technique for rapid labeling of a large number of cells in the nervous system with many different colors. By delivering lipophilic dye-coated particles to neuronal preparations with a "gene gun," individual neurons and glia whose membranes are contacted by the particles are quickly labeled. Using particles that are each coated with different(More)
In the visual and somatosensory systems, maturation of neuronal circuits continues for days to weeks after sensory stimulation occurs. Deprivation of sensory input at various stages of development can induce physiological, and often structural, changes that modify the circuitry of these sensory systems. Recent studies also reveal a surprising degree of(More)
Axon terminals from the two eyes initially overlap in the dorsal-lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) but subsequently refine to occupy nonoverlapping territories. Retinal activity is required to establish and maintain this segregation. We show that despite the presence of retinal activity, segregated projections desegregate when the structure of activity is(More)
BACKGROUND Neurons receive excitatory synaptic inputs that are distributed across their dendritic arbors at densities and with spatial patterns that influence their output. How specific synaptic distributions are attained during development is not well understood. The distribution of glutamatergic inputs across the dendritic arbors of mammalian retinal(More)
Patterns of coordinated spontaneous activity have been proposed to guide circuit refinement in many parts of the developing nervous system. It is unclear, however, how such patterns, which are thought to indiscriminately synchronize nearby cells, could provide the cues necessary to segregate functionally distinct circuits within overlapping cell(More)
Sensory neurons with common functions are often nonrandomly arranged and form dendritic territories that show little overlap, or tiling. Repulsive homotypic interactions underlie such patterns in cell organization in invertebrate neurons. It is unclear how dendro-dendritic repulsive interactions can produce a nonrandom distribution of cells and their(More)
Symmetric cell divisions have been proposed to rapidly increase neuronal number late in neurogenesis, but how critical this mode of division is to establishing a specific neuronal layer is unknown. Using in vivo time-lapse imaging methods, we discovered that in the laminated zebrafish retina, the horizontal cell (HC) layer forms quickly during embryonic(More)
Targeting of axons and dendrites to particular synaptic laminae is an important mechanism by which precise patterns of neuronal connectivity are established. Although axons target specific laminae during development, dendritic lamination has been thought to occur largely by pruning of inappropriately placed arbors. We discovered by in vivo time-lapse(More)
A role for spontaneous spiking activity in shaping neuronal circuits has frequently been debated. Analyses of retinotopy in mutant mice with reduced correlated firing among neighboring retinal cells by Grubb et al. and McLaughlin et al. in this issue of Neuron indicate the importance of patterned spontaneous activity for retinotopic map refinement in(More)