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Layer formation in the developing cerebral cortex requires the movement of neurons from their site of origin to their final laminar position. We demonstrate, using time-lapse imaging of acute cortical slices, that two distinct forms of cell movement, locomotion and somal translocation, are responsible for the radial migration of cortical neurons. These(More)
Dendrites allow neurons to integrate information from an array of synaptic inputs, and the specific branching pattern of dendrites limits the number and type of inputs that a neuron can receive. Dendritic morphology also influences how synaptic signals decay as they propagate towards the soma. Consequently, there is a well-defined relationship between the(More)
In this review, we summarize the main stages of structural and functional development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We first consider the various mechanisms that are involved in restructuring of dendritic trees. To date, many mechanisms have been implicated including target-dependent factors, interactions from neighboring RGCs, and afferent signaling.(More)
In the immature retina, correlated spontaneous activity in the form of propagating waves is thought to be necessary for the refinement of connections between the retina and its targets. The continued presence of this activity in the mature retina would interfere with the transmission of information about the visual scene. The mechanisms responsible for the(More)
Activity is thought to guide the patterning of synaptic connections in the developing nervous system. Specifically, differences in the activity of converging inputs are thought to cause the elimination of synapses from less active inputs and increase connectivity with more active inputs. Here we present findings that challenge the generality of this notion(More)
The cellular mechanisms underlying axogenesis and dendritogenesis are not completely understood. The axons and dendrites of retinal bipolar cells, which contact their synaptic partners within specific laminae in the inner and outer retina, provide a good system for exploring these issues. Using transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein(More)
In the visual and somatosensory systems, maturation of neuronal circuits continues for days to weeks after sensory stimulation occurs. Deprivation of sensory input at various stages of development can induce physiological, and often structural, changes that modify the circuitry of these sensory systems. Recent studies also reveal a surprising degree of(More)
Axon terminals from the two eyes initially overlap in the dorsal-lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) but subsequently refine to occupy nonoverlapping territories. Retinal activity is required to establish and maintain this segregation. We show that despite the presence of retinal activity, segregated projections desegregate when the structure of activity is(More)
Many developing neural circuits generate synchronized bursting activity among neighboring neurons, a pattern thought to be important for sculpting precise neural connectivity. Network output remains relatively constant as the cellular and synaptic components of these immature circuits change during development, suggesting the presence of homeostatic(More)