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Although a relationship is commonly accepted between coronary and carotid arterial disease, suggesting that atherosclerosis is a systemic condition, the extent of this association and correspondence has not been fully elucidated. This review discusses recent research in this field and highlights areas for future study. The prevalence of severe carotid(More)
Ginger is now exciting considerable interest for its potential to treat many aspects of cardiovascular disease. This letter reviews the more recent trials, which suggest that ginger shows considerable anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-platelet, hypotensive and hypolipidemic effect in in vitro and animal studies. Human trials have been few and generally(More)
BACKGROUND Ethnic differences in prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease are well established and are usually attributed to risk factors variation. This study investigates the differences in coronary artery narrowing and coronary calcification between two age- and gender-matched cohorts of South Asian and Caucasian symptomatic angina patients. (More)
The recent advancement of imaging modalities has made possible visualization of atherosclerosis disease in all phases of its development. Markers of subclinical atherosclerosis or even the most advanced plaque features are acquired by invasive (IVUS, OCT) and non-invasive imaging modalities (US, MRI, CTA). Determining plaques prone to rupture (vulnerable(More)
Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of(More)
There is a significant relationship between the presence, extent and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in both CV and renal patients and CAC scoring can provide improved predictive ability over risk factor scoring alone. There is also a close relationship between CAC presence and atherosclerotic(More)
The golden ratio, or golden mean, of 1.618 is a proportion known since antiquity to be the most aesthetically pleasing and has been used repeatedly in art and architecture. Both the golden ratio and the allied golden angle of 137.5° have been found within the proportions and angles of the human body and plants. In the human heart we found many applications(More)
AIM To investigate the prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in symptomatic individuals with CT evidence for left heart valve calcification, aortic valve (AVC), mitral valve (MAC) or both. METHODS This is a retrospective study of 282 consecutive patients with calcification in either the aortic valve or mitral annulus. Calcium scoring of the(More)
BACKGROUND Aortic calcification has been shown to share the same risk factors as atherosclerosis which suggested a potential benefit from statins therapy. In view of the existing conflicting results, we aimed to provide objective evidence on the effect of statins in aortic stenosis (AS). METHODS AND RESULTS A meta-analysis of eligible studies that used(More)
Atheroma calcification is a common feature of advanced atherosclerosis, however with the advent of CT scanning it has become possible to detect extensive coronary calcification in the absence of flow-limiting lesions. While this phenomenon is known in renal disease, it also exists in some patients with exertional angina. Vascular pathology suggests(More)