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Glutamine plays a key role in the metabolism of rapidly dividing cells, including enterocytes and lymphocytes, which may contribute to its beneficial clinical effects. Gut mucosal homeostasis is achieved through a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. In T cells, glutamine up-regulates antiapoptotic proteins and down-regulates proapoptotic(More)
Recent epidemiological studies highlight the key role of the type of consumed unsaturated fatty acid and the development of ulcerative colitis (UC). We aimed to review the potential mechanisms behind the antiinflammatory effects of unsaturated fatty acids on intestinal inflammation, to discuss their potential limitations, and to propose a new reappraisal of(More)
We have previously shown that α-linolenic acid (ALA), a (n-3) PUFA exerts in vitro antiinflammatory effects in the intestine. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its effect on inflammatory and oxidative stress in a colitis model. Colitis was induced in 2 groups at d 0 by intrarectal injection of 2-4-6-trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS), whereas the control(More)
Glutamine (Gln) and arginine (Arg) are conditionally essential amino acids with immunomodulatory properties. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of Gln and Arg alone or in combination on cytokine release by cultured colonic biopsies from patients with active Crohn's disease (CD). Ten consecutive patients [mean (range) age 26 (18-39) y] with(More)
The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is multifactorial and involves interactions of gut luminal content with mucosal barrier and especially immune cells. Malnutrition is a frequent issue during IBD flares, especially in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and nutritional support is frequently used to treat malnutrition but also in an attempt(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor that regulates intestinal inflammation. PPAR gamma is highly expressed in the colon and can be activated by various dietary ligands. A number of fatty acids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids or eicosanoids are considered as endogenous PPAR gamma activators. Nevertheless,(More)
The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the major pathway of intracellular protein degradation and may be involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases or irritable bowel syndrome. UPS specifically degrades proteins tagged with an ubiquitin chain. We aimed to identify polyubiquitinated proteins during inflammatory response in intestinal(More)
BACKGROUND Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) plays a role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation and is activated by both natural (polyunsaturated fatty acid; PUFAs) and synthetic (troglitazone) ligands. The fatty acid content of defined formula diets may play a role in mediating the antiinflammatory effect, but the(More)
BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) has been recently developed to assess bowel inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Evaluating animal models of inflammation with MRC may be important in new drug-screening processes. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of MRC in colitic rats and confront it with model(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The role of endothelial cells in inflammatory bowel disease has been recently emphasized. Endothelial activation and expression of adhesion molecules are critical for leukocytes recruitment into the inflammatory wall. Compelling evidence demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects of long chain n-3 PUFA in inflammatory models. We previously(More)