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Glutamine plays a key role in the metabolism of rapidly dividing cells, including enterocytes and lymphocytes, which may contribute to its beneficial clinical effects. Gut mucosal homeostasis is achieved through a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. In T cells, glutamine up-regulates antiapoptotic proteins and down-regulates proapoptotic(More)
The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the major pathway of intracellular protein degradation and may be involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases or irritable bowel syndrome. UPS specifically degrades proteins tagged with an ubiquitin chain. We aimed to identify polyubiquitinated proteins during inflammatory response in intestinal(More)
Ubiquitin proteasome system contributes to the regulation of intestinal inflammatory response as its inhibition is associated with tissue damage improvement. We aimed to evaluate whether glutamine is able to limit inflammation by targeting ubiquitin proteasome system in experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in male rats by intrarectal instillation of(More)
BACKGROUND Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) plays a role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation and is activated by both natural (polyunsaturated fatty acid; PUFAs) and synthetic (troglitazone) ligands. The fatty acid content of defined formula diets may play a role in mediating the antiinflammatory effect, but the(More)
Inflammation is a protective process for life that aims to restore body homeostasis by targeting the injury and by inducing repair mechanisms. This process can also become excessive and lead to chronic inflammation and organ fibrosis. Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a key role in inflammatory processes and their resolution. Indeed, numerous lipid mediators(More)
Glutamine (Gln) and arginine (Arg) are conditionally essential amino acids with immunomodulatory properties. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of Gln and Arg alone or in combination on cytokine release by cultured colonic biopsies from patients with active Crohn's disease (CD). Ten consecutive patients [mean (range) age 26 (18-39) y] with(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor that regulates intestinal inflammation. PPAR gamma is highly expressed in the colon and can be activated by various dietary ligands. A number of fatty acids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids or eicosanoids are considered as endogenous PPAR gamma activators. Nevertheless,(More)
Recent epidemiological studies highlight the key role of the type of consumed unsaturated fatty acid and the development of ulcerative colitis (UC). We aimed to review the potential mechanisms behind the antiinflammatory effects of unsaturated fatty acids on intestinal inflammation, to discuss their potential limitations, and to propose a new reappraisal of(More)
BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) has been recently developed to assess bowel inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Evaluating animal models of inflammation with MRC may be important in new drug-screening processes. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of MRC in colitic rats and confront it with model(More)
5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is widely used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies have evaluated the potential of nutritional intervention as adjunct therapy to 5-ASA in IBD. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have shown potent anti-inflammatory properties in gut inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy(More)