Rachel Mairi Baker

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This paper presents the first attempt to use a discrete choice experiment to derive distributional weights for quality adjusted life years (QALYs), based on characteristics (age and severity) of the beneficiaries. A novel approach using the Hicksian compensating variation is applied. Advantages include derivation of weights for QALYs, not just for life or(More)
BACKGROUND Since the inception of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in England, there have been questions about the empirical basis for the cost-per-QALY threshold used by NICE and whether QALYs gained by different beneficiaries of health care should be weighted equally. The Social Value of a QALY (SVQ) project, reported in(More)
Economic rationality is traditionally represented by goal-oriented, maximising behaviour, or 'instrumental rationality'. Such a consequentialist, instrumental model of choice is often implicit in a biomedical approach to health promotion and education. The research reported here assesses the relevance of a broader conceptual framework of rationality, which(More)
A consistent finding in health services research is the report of uneven uptake of research findings. Implementation trials have a variable record of success in effectively influencing clinicians' behaviour. A more systematic approach may be to conduct Intervention Modelling Experiments before service-level trials, examining intervention effects on 'interim(More)
OBJECTIVES There is a need for understanding how physical environmental changes impact physical activity (PA) levels within a population. We examined visitation and PA levels in two San Francisco parks in low-income neighborhoods that underwent field renovations, one of which was part of a parks initiative to improve family and youth involvement. METHODS(More)
As health economists begin to embrace qualitative methodology they inevitably face a number of issues. This paper explores these, distinguishing between those associated with the conflict between quantitative and qualitative methodologies (that has already been faced in a number of other research areas) and those associated with the potential for challenges(More)
A major issue in health economic evaluation is that of the value to place on a quality adjusted life year (QALY), commonly used as a measure of health care effectiveness across Europe. This critical policy issue is reflected in the growing interest across Europe in development of more sound methods to elicit such a value. EuroVaQ was a collaboration of(More)
This paper is focused on establishing why a willingness-to-pay per quality-adjusted life-year value is needed and how such a value can be used in healthcare decision-making. Studies that have estimated willingness-to-pay per quality-adjusted life-year values from stated preference data are reviewed and categorized into three groups. These studies are then(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the availability of clinical guidelines for the management of low back pain (LBP), there continues to be wide variation in general practitioners' (GPs') referral rates for lumbar spine x-ray (LSX). This study aims to explain variation in GPs' referral rates for LSX from their accounts of the management of patients with low back pain. (More)
Standard gamble (SG) is commonly used to elicit preferences in order to assess health related quality of life. There has been little qualitative research exploring how respondents answer such questions. An SG study was designed to elicit values for the health states associated with anti-hypertensive medication, stroke and cardiovascular disease. This paper(More)