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GPR40 (G-protein-coupled receptor 40) has been shown to be a physiologically relevant receptor for long-chain fatty acids. It is a family A G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the beta-cell where it increases insulin secretion by signalling via Gq and phospholipase C. Fatty acids are well known to mediate both acute stimulatory effects and(More)
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Yet the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of DN are not fully defined, partially due to lack of suitable models that mimic the complex pathogenesis of renal disease in diabetic patients. In this study, we describe early and late renal manifestations of DN and renal(More)
AIM We have generated a heterozygous glucokinase knockout mouse (gk(del/wt)), upon which we investigated the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) with respect to metabolic control and both hepatic and beta-cell gene expression. We also investigated the in vitro efficacy of a glucokinase activator (GKA) on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in(More)
OBJECTIVE Glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased adiposity, skeletal myopathy, and insulin resistance, but the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. Within skeletal muscle, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) converts cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in rodents) to active cortisol (corticosterone in rodents). We(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in eight microdissected hypothalamic regions of obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/?) Zucker rats. Freely fed obese rats showed significant (40-100%) increases in NPY concentrations in several regions, notably the paraventricular, ventromedial, and dorsomedial nuclei and the arcuate(More)
AIMS To investigate whether glucose lowering with the selective sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin would prevent or reduce the decline of pancreatic function and disruption of normal islet morphology. METHODS Female Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, 7-8 weeks old, were placed on high-fat diet. Dapagliflozin (1 mg/kg/day, p.o.)(More)
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present throughout life in rodents and plays an important role in energy balance. However, whereas BAT is clearly recognizable in the neonates of larger mammals (including dogs, cats, sheep, cattle, and humans), it is undetectable or present in only small quantities in adults of these species and is replaced by a tissue with(More)
The pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, which is an important regulatory step in oxidative metabolism. Phosphorylation of the E1 (pyruvate decarboxylase) subunit on one of three specific serine residues results in loss of enzyme activity. Four dedicated PDHK (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase)(More)
Increased hypothalamic neuropeptide Y levels have previously been demonstrated in several hypothalamic nuclei of the (fa/fa) Zucker rat. This study set out to characterise hypothalamic NPY receptors in both genotypres and to study the effect of exogenous NPY on feeding behavior in these rats. Spontaneous daytime food intake was raised in the obese rat (p(More)
1. ICI D7114 is a novel, beta-adrenoceptor agonist which stimulates whole body oxygen consumption in conscious rats, cats and dogs and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in conscious rats. Treatment of rats with ICI D7114 stimulated oxygen consumption (ED50, 0.04 mg kg-1, p.o.) and BAT mitochondrial guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-binding (ED50, 0.15 mg kg-1,(More)