Rachel M Mayers

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GPR40 (G-protein-coupled receptor 40) has been shown to be a physiologically relevant receptor for long-chain fatty acids. It is a family A G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the beta-cell where it increases insulin secretion by signalling via Gq and phospholipase C. Fatty acids are well known to mediate both acute stimulatory effects and(More)
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Yet the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of DN are not fully defined, partially due to lack of suitable models that mimic the complex pathogenesis of renal disease in diabetic patients. In this study, we describe early and late renal manifestations of DN and renal(More)
OBJECTIVE Glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased adiposity, skeletal myopathy, and insulin resistance, but the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. Within skeletal muscle, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) converts cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in rodents) to active cortisol (corticosterone in rodents). We(More)
AIM We have generated a heterozygous glucokinase knockout mouse (gk(del/wt)), upon which we investigated the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) with respect to metabolic control and both hepatic and beta-cell gene expression. We also investigated the in vitro efficacy of a glucokinase activator (GKA) on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in eight microdissected hypothalamic regions of obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/?) Zucker rats. Freely fed obese rats showed significant (40-100%) increases in NPY concentrations in several regions, notably the paraventricular, ventromedial, and dorsomedial nuclei and the arcuate(More)
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present throughout life in rodents and plays an important role in energy balance. However, whereas BAT is clearly recognizable in the neonates of larger mammals (including dogs, cats, sheep, cattle, and humans), it is undetectable or present in only small quantities in adults of these species and is replaced by a tissue with(More)
AIMS To investigate whether glucose lowering with the selective sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin would prevent or reduce the decline of pancreatic function and disruption of normal islet morphology. METHODS Female Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, 7-8 weeks old, were placed on high-fat diet. Dapagliflozin (1 mg/kg/day, p.o.)(More)
1. ICI D7114 is a novel, beta-adrenoceptor agonist which stimulates whole body oxygen consumption in conscious rats, cats and dogs and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in conscious rats. Treatment of rats with ICI D7114 stimulated oxygen consumption (ED50, 0.04 mg kg-1, p.o.) and BAT mitochondrial guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-binding (ED50, 0.15 mg kg-1,(More)
The PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase) multi-enzyme complex catalyses a key regulatory step in oxidative glycolysis. Phosphorylation of the E1 subunit of the complex on serine residues results in the inactivation of enzyme activity. A family of four dedicated PDH kinase isoenzymes exists, each of which displays a distinct tissue-specific expression profile.(More)
PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase) is a key enzyme controlling the rate of glucose oxidation, and the availability of gluconeogenic precursors. Activation of PDH in skeletal muscle and liver may increase glucose uptake and reduce glucose production. This study describes the properties of AZD7545, a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of PDHK (PDH kinase). In the(More)