Rachel L. Redfern

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PURPOSE To investigate the expression of human beta-defensins (hBDs) by human corneal epithelium and determine the effects of proinflammatory cytokines on expression of human beta-defensin (hBD)-2 by human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) in culture. METHODS RNA was extracted from corneal epithelial cells scraped from cadaveric corneas and from cultured(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes vision-threatening keratitis and is difficult to treat due to emerging resistance. Human beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide expressed by ocular surface epithelia with broad-spectrum activity against various pathogens, including P. aeruginosa. The activity of hBD-2 against P. aeruginosa in the presence of human(More)
We aimed to determine if toll-like receptor (TLR) expression is modulated in response to dry eye-associated conditions and in dry eye syndrome (DES). Primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC), an SV40 HCEC cell line or a normal human conjunctival epithelial cell line (IOBA-NHC) were cultured under hyperosmolar stress (HOS) (400-500 mOsm/kg) or with DES(More)
Dry eye is a common ocular surface disease of multifactorial etiology characterized by elevated tear osmolality and inflammation leading to a disrupted ocular surface. The latter is a risk factor for ocular surface infection, yet overt infection is not commonly seen clinically in the typical dry eye patient. This suggests that important innate mechanisms(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the expression and/or function of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in dry eye inflammation. METHODS Experimental dry eye (EDE) was induced in C57BL/6 mice and TLR mRNA and protein expression were determined at the ocular surface and lacrimal gland. TLR agonist cocktail was applied to the ocular surface in(More)
The ability of the ocular surface to respond to pathogens is in part attributed to toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize conserved motifs on various microbes. This study examines TLR expression on various ocular surface cells, if TLR agonists can modulate the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), human beta defensins (hBD) and cathelicidin(More)
PURPOSE Functions of antimicrobial peptidoglycan recognition proteins (Pglyrp1-4) at the ocular surface are poorly understood. Earlier, we reported an antibacterial role for Pglyrp-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. Here we investigated functions of three other related genes Pglyrp-2, -3 and -4 in a mouse model of P. aeruginosa keratitis. METHODS Wild(More)
The ability of the ocular surface to mount an immune response is in part attributed to a family of proteins called toll-like receptors (TLRs). The latter are evolutionary conserved receptors that recognize and respond to various microbes and endogenous ligands. In addition to their recognition function, TLR activation triggers a complex signal transduction(More)
The cornea must maintain homeostasis, enabling rapid response to injury and microbial insult, to protect the eye from insult and infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical to this innate immune response through the recognition and response to pathogens. Myeloid differentiation primary response (MyD88) is a key signaling molecule necessary for(More)