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[1] Variations in the Martian water and CO 2 cycles with changes in orbital and rotational parameters are examined using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Mars General Circulation Model. The model allows for arbitrary specification of obliquity, eccentricity, and argument of perihelion as well as the position and thickness of surface ice. Exchange(More)
The Notch family of transmembrane receptor proteins mediate developmental cell-fate decisions, and mutations in mammalian Notch genes have been implicated in leukaemia, breast cancer, stroke and dementia. During wing development in Drosophila, the Notch receptor is activated along the border between dorsal and ventral cells, leading to the specification of(More)
The configuration and performance of a new global atmosphere and land model for climate research developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) is presented. The atmosphere model, known as AM2, includes a new gridpoint dynamical core, a prognostic cloud scheme, and a multi-species aerosol climatology, and components from previous models used(More)
Notch receptors function in highly conserved intercellular signalling pathways that direct cell-fate decisions, proliferation and apoptosis in metazoans. Fringe proteins can positively and negatively modulate the ability of Notch ligands to activate the Notch receptor. Here we establish the biochemical mechanism of Fringe action. Drosophila and mammalian(More)
The formation of boundaries between groups of cells is a universal feature of metazoan development. Drosophila fringe modulates the activation of the Notch signal transduction pathway at the dorsal-ventral boundary of the wing imaginal disc. Three mammalian fringe-related family members have been cloned and characterized: Manic, Radical and Lunatic Fringe.(More)
[1] We describe the first use of a general circulation model to study the Martian water cycle. Water is treated as a passive tracer, except for ice-albedo coupling. The model is used to assess which mechanisms and water reservoirs are critical to the seasonal evolution of water and specifically the attainment of an interannually repeatable steady state. The(More)
To investigate the effects of the middle atmosphere on climate, the World Climate Research Programme is supporting the project " Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate " (SPARC). A central theme of SPARC, to examine model simulations of the coupled troposphere–middle atmosphere system, is being performed through the initiative called GRIPS(More)
Large seasonal and hemispheric asymmetries in the martian climate system are generally ascribed to variations in solar heating associated with orbital eccentricity. As the orbital elements slowly change (over a period of >104 years), characteristics of the climate such as dustiness and the vigour of atmospheric circulation are thought to vary, as should(More)