Rachel J Tolhurst

Learn More
A high burden of malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV infection contributes to national and individual poverty. We have reviewed a broad range of evidence detailing factors at individual, household, and community levels that influence vulnerability to malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV infection and used this evidence to identify strategies that could improve(More)
This paper explores the gendered dynamics of intra-household bargaining around treatment seeking for children with fever revealed through two qualitative research studies in the Volta Region of Ghana, and discusses the influence of different gender and health discourses on the likely policy implications drawn from such findings. Methods used included focus(More)
CONTEXT Effective and affordable treatment is recommended for all cases of malaria within 24 h of the onset of illness. Most cases of "malaria" (ie, fever) are self-diagnosed and most treatments, and deaths, occur at home. The most ethical and cost-effective policy is to ensure that newer drug combinations are only used for true cases of malaria. Although(More)
BACKGROUND A growing number of developing countries are developing health insurance schemes that aim to protect households, particularly the poor, from financial catastrophe and impoverishment caused by unaffordable medical care. This paper investigates the extent to which patients suffering from chronic disease in rural China face catastrophic expenditure(More)
The ongoing reform of public institutions and state-owned enterprises in urban China has had a profound impact on the financing, organization and provision of health services. Access to health care by the urban population has become more inequitable. One of the most pressing concerns is that those who have lost jobs have increasing difficulties accessing(More)
BACKGROUND Zuo yuezi is the month postpartum in China associated with a variety of traditional beliefs and practices. We explored the current status of zuo yuezi from social, cultural and western medical perspectives. METHODS We interviewed family members (36) and health workers (8) in Fujian Province, selecting one rural and one rapidly developing urban(More)
Improving case detection is an urgent and serious challenge for tuberculosis (TB) control in China. We investigated the extent to which TB patients delayed seeking TB care and health services delayed reaching a diagnosis, and socio-economic factors associated with the delays. Standard questionnaires were administered to 190 new smear-positive TB patients(More)
BACKGROUND Many countries are developing health financing mechanisms to pursue the goal of universal coverage. In China, a rural health insurance system entitled New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) is being developed since 2003. Although there is concern about whether the NCMS will influence the serious situation of inequity in health service utilization(More)
This review summarises a wide range of evidence about environmental and institutional factors that influence vulnerability to malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV infection. By combining this information with that obtained on factors operating at individual, household, and community level, we have identified potential common strategies for improving resilience to(More)
OBJECTIVE to investigate perceptions of preterm birth, infections in pregnancy and perinatal mortality among women, men and health-care providers in Namitambo, Southern Malawi. DESIGN a qualitative study using focus-group discussions, critical incidence narrative and key informant interviews. The framework approach to qualitative analysis was used. (More)