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Full and functionally selective M1 muscarinic agonists (carbachol and AF102B, respectively) activate secretion of the soluble form of amyloid precursor protein (APPs) in PC12 cells expressing the m1 muscarinic receptor (PC12M1 cells). This activation is further augmented by neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor.(More)
A cholinergic hypofunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may lead to formation of beta-amyloids that might impair the coupling of M1 muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) with G proteins. This disruption in coupling can lead to decreased signal transduction, to a reduction in levels of trophic amyloid precursor proteins (APPs), and to generation of more(More)
M1 muscarinic receptors (M1 mAChRs) play a role in an apparent linkage of three major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD): beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide; tau hyperphosphorylation and paired helical filaments (PHFs); and loss of cholinergic function conducive to cognitive impairments. We evaluated the M1 muscarinic agonists AF102B (Cevimeline, EVOXAC trade(More)
The nature of the interactions between the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and the phencyclidine (PCP) receptors was studied in membranes obtained from rat cerebral cortex and washed repeatedly to remove endogenous excitatory amino acids. Binding of [3H]-N-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine ([3H]TCP) to its receptor sites in these membranes proceeded slowly(More)
The AF series compounds, AF102B and congeners of AF150(S), are functionally selective agonists for m1 muscarinic receptors (m1AChRs). This is shown in stable transfected CHO and PC12 cells (PC12M1) with m1m5AChRs and m1AChRs, respectively. AF102B and AF150(S) are partial agonists, but AF150, AF151, and AF151 (S) are full agonists in stimulating(More)
Binding and photoaffinity labeling experiments were employed in order to differentiate 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine (PCP) receptor sites in rat brain. Two classes of PCP receptors were characterized and localized: one class binds [3H]-N-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine [( 3H]TCP) with high affinity (Kd = 10-15 nM) and the other binds the ligand with(More)
Processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) is coupled to several neurotransmitter receptors, including m1 muscarinic (m1AChR), and is associated with decreased amyloid deposition. Muscarinic agonist-stimulated APP secretion and membrane APP were measured in control and in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells stably transfected with m1AChR. This secretion(More)
Rigid analogs of acetylcholine (ACh) were designed for selective actions at muscarinic receptor (mAChR) subtypes and distinct second messenger systems. AF102B, AF150, and AF151 are such rigid analogs of ACh. AF102B, AF150 and AF151 are centrally active M1 agonists. AF102B has a unique agonistic profile showing, inter alia: only part of the M1(More)
AF102B [(+-)-cis-2-methyl-spiro(1,3-oxathiolane-5,3')quinuclidine], a structurally rigid analog of acetylcholine, was investigated in a number of neurochemical, pharmacological and behavioral tests related to cholinergic functions. AF102B induced atropine-sensitive contractions of isolated guinea pig ilea and trachea preparations with EC50 values of 3.5 and(More)
The M1 muscarinic agonists AF102B, AF150(S) & AF267B--i) restored cognitive impairments in several animal models for AD with an excellent safety margin; ii) elevated alpha-APPs levels; iii) attenuated vicious cycles induced by A beta, and inhibited A beta- and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis; and iv) decreased tau hyperphosphorylation. AF150(S) and(More)