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Mutations in APC have been identified in up to 80% of 'classic' sporadic colorectal cancers. Although the APC gene was first sequenced over a decade ago, new functions are still being described and its importance in the genesis of colorectal cancer continues to increase. The current focus of attention is on the APC/beta-Catenin/TCF signal transduction(More)
The development of siRNA-based gene silencing therapies has significant potential for effectively treating debilitating genetic, hyper-proliferative or malignant skin conditions caused by aberrant gene expression. To be efficacious and widely accepted by physicians and patients, therapeutic siRNAs must access the viable skin layers in a stable and(More)
Kiss-1 and Kiss-1R have been suggested as a novel pair of metastasis suppressors for several human solid tumours, however, their role in colorectal cancer remains largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role and signal transduction of Kiss-1 and Kiss-1R in colorectal cancer. Ribozyme transgenes were used to knockdown high(More)
BACKGROUND It has recently been shown that WISP proteins (Wnt-inducted secreted proteins), a group of intra- and extra-cellular regulatory proteins, have been implicated in the initiation and progression of a variety of tumour types including colorectal and breast cancer. However, the role of WISP proteins in gastric cancer (GC) cells and their clinical(More)
AIM The aim of this study is to audit our outcomes and experience of colonic stent insertion for malignant bowel obstruction. METHOD Retrospective audit of all stent insertions in a single district general hospital between August 2003 and December 2009. All patients had presented with acute bowel obstruction caused by malignant colorectal disease and(More)
Lymphangiogenesis is involved in the dissemination of malignant cells from solid tumours to regional lymph nodes and possibly to various distant sites. Lymphangiogenesis is regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D. Interleukin (IL)-24 is known as a cytokine with potent antitumour and tumour-suppressive activity which functions(More)
Treatment of malignant disease is of paramount importance in modern medicine. In 2012, it was estimated that 162,000 people died from cancer in the UK which illustrates a fundamental problem. Traditional treatments for cancer have various drawbacks, and this creates a considerable need for specific, molecular targets to overcome cancer spread. Epithelial(More)
Although elevated CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cell (Treg) frequencies within tumors are well documented, the functional and phenotypic characteristics of CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ and CD4⁺Foxp3⁻ T cell subsets from matched blood, healthy colon, and colorectal cancer require in-depth investigation. Flow cytometry revealed that the majority of intratumoral CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ T cells(More)
BACKGROUND Signal-induced proliferation-associated gene 1 (SIPA1) codes for a GTPase-activating protein, known to be a negative regulator of Ras-related Protein (RAP) which belongs to the Ras superfamily. It has been implicated in certain malignancies, including leukemia, cervical cancer and breast cancer. However the role of this molecule in colorectal(More)
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an uncommon ulcerative skin disease often associated with underlying systemic diseases. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although immune pathways have been implicated. Targeted therapy is therefore lacking and currently treatment is largely empirical and consists of corticosteroids and ciclosporin first line. This paper reviews the(More)