Rachel E Winmill

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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cellular hypoxia, and the contribution of anaerobic metabolism, on respiratory activity in bullfrogs at different stages of development. Respiratory-related neural activity was recorded from cranial nerve rootlets in isolated brainstem preparations from pre-metamorphic (Taylor-Kollros (T-K) stages(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that voltage-dependent, respiratory-related activity in vitro, inferred from changes in [K(+)](o), changes during development in the amphibian brainstem. Respiratory-related neural activity was recorded from cranial nerve roots in isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparations from 7 premetamorphic tadpoles and 10 adults.(More)
This study examined the role of gap junctional communication in the modulation of respiratory related motor output using in vitro brainstem preparations of larval (N=14) and adult (N=14) bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Superfusion of the isolated brainstem for at least 1 h with the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone (CBX; 100 microM and 1 mM) dissolved in(More)
This study examined the direct effects of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222), a sodium-channel blocking local anesthetic, on respiratory motor output using an in vitro brain stem preparation of adult North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Bullfrogs were anesthetized with halothane, and the brain stem was removed and superfused with artificial(More)
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