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Neural testosterone metabolism, particularly the synthesis of oestradiol (E(2)) via the aromatase enzyme, is important for sexual behaviours in many vertebrates. In green anole lizards, E(2) metabolised from testosterone facilitates female receptivity and increases sexual motivation in males. Testosterone treatment increases aromatase activity in the whole(More)
Addiction-associated behaviors such as drug craving and relapse are hypothesized to result from synaptic changes that persist long after withdrawal and are renormalized by drug reinstatement, although such chronic synaptic effects have not been identified. We report that exposure to the dopamine releaser methamphetamine for 10 days elicits a long-lasting(More)
The 5α-reductase (5αR) enzyme converts testosterone to 5α-dihydrotestosterone. This local metabolism within the brain is important for the full expression of male sexual behavior in many species, including green anole lizards. Two isozymes of 5αR exist and little is known about their specific distributions. We conducted in situ hybridization for both(More)
Laboratory studies of reproductive systems have long supported the idea that neural and/or muscular structures used frequently are often enhanced in size. However, field studies integrating behavioral, morphological, and hormonal data are needed to better understand relationships in natural environments. We examined a natural population of green anole(More)
INTRODUCTION Lesotho has the third highest HIV prevalence in the world (an adult prevalence of 23.2%). Despite a lack of resources for health, the country has implemented state-of-the-art antiretroviral treatment guidelines, including early initiation of treatment (<350 cells/mm3), tenofovir in first line, and nurse-initiated and managed HIV care, including(More)
Studies often examine egg yolks after oviposition with the goal of drawing conclusions about maternal allocation of gonadal steroid hormones and how it may affect offspring development. However, these hormones might originate from a few sources, including the ovary, blood plasma, or the embryo itself. The goal of this study was to investigate whether(More)
Tests of cognition in mice frequently employ deprivations or aversive stimuli to motivate learning. Such manipulations may confound interpretation of differences in performance. Concerns arising from the potential confounding are accentuated when the object of the experiment is to compare cognitive function of young and old animals because aging alters many(More)
Recent studies have shown that 'return to home cage' can serve as a reward for maze learning in adult male mice. The present study examined whether the same reward is an effective motivator of learning in young and old mice and included females in the study design. We tested 25- and 65-d-old HS mice and 85- and 800-d-old B6D2F2 mice in a Lashley III maze.(More)