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MOTIVATION A number of proteins of known three-dimensional (3D) structure exist, with yet unknown function. In light of the recent progress in structure determination methodology, this number is likely to increase rapidly. A novel method is presented here: 'Rate4Site', which maps the rate of evolution among homologous proteins onto the molecular surface of(More)
UNLABELLED We recently developed algorithmic tools for the identification of functionally important regions in proteins of known three dimensional structure by estimating the degree of conservation of the amino-acid sites among their close sequence homologues. Projecting the conservation grades onto the molecular surface of these proteins reveals patches of(More)
A phenotype-driven approach was adopted in the mouse to identify molecules involved in ear development and function. Mutant mice were obtained using N-ethyl- N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis and were screened for dominant mutations that affect hearing and/or balance. Heterozygote headbanger ( Hdb/+) mutants display classic behavior indicative of vestibular(More)
PURPOSE Mutations in murine and human versions of an ancestrally related gene usually result in similar phenotypes. However, interspecies differences exist, and in the case of two forkhead transcription factor genes (FOXC1 and FOXC2), these differences include corneal or anterior segment phenotypes, respectively. This study was undertaken to determine(More)
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) causes focal lacunar infarction and more diffuse ischaemia, referred to as leukoaraiosis. Endothelial dysfunction has been proposed as a causal mechanism in the disease. Homocysteine is toxic to endothelium. We determined whether elevated homocysteine levels and the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T(More)
During development, tissue-specific transcription factors regulate both protein-coding and non-coding genes to control differentiation. Recent studies have established a dual role for the transcription factor Pax6 as both an activator and repressor of gene expression in the eye, central nervous system, and pancreas. However, the molecular mechanism(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess whether a strategy of endovascular repair (if aortic morphology is suitable, open repair if not) versus open repair reduces early mortality for patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. DESIGN Randomised controlled trial. SETTING 30 vascular centres (29 UK, 1 Canadian), 2009-13. PARTICIPANTS 613 eligible patients(More)
Proteins perform many of their biological roles through protein-protein, protein-DNA or protein-ligand interfaces. The identification of the amino acids comprising these interfaces often enhances our understanding of the biological function of the proteins. Many methods for the detection of functional interfaces have been developed, and large-scale analyses(More)
Melanoma is one of the deadliest human cancers, responsible for approximately 80% of skin cancer mortalities. The aggressiveness of melanoma is due to its capacity to proliferate and rapidly invade surrounding tissues, leading to metastases. A recent model suggests melanoma progresses by reversibly switching between proliferation and invasion(More)
BACKGROUND Single-centre series of the management of patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are usually too small to identify clinical factors that could improve patient outcomes. METHODS IMPROVE is a pragmatic, multicentre randomized clinical trial in which eligible patients with a clinical diagnosis of ruptured aneurysm were allocated to(More)