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The exponential demand equation proposed by Hursh and Silberberg (2008) provides an estimate of the essential value of a good as a function of price. The model predicts that essential value should remain constant across changes in the magnitude of a reinforcer, but may change as a function of motivational operations. In Experiment 1, rats' demand for food(More)
Technology-based interventions to promote health are expanding rapidly. Assessing the preliminary efficacy of these interventions can be achieved by employing single-case experiments (sometimes referred to as n-of-1 studies). Although single-case experiments are often misunderstood, they offer excellent solutions to address the challenges associated with(More)
Nicotine increases the value of some reinforcing stimuli, and this effect may contribute to nicotine's widespread abuse. We aimed to quantify this effect using a behavioral economic analysis. Six Long- Evans rats were exposed to a modified observing response procedure. In this procedure, presses to one lever resulted either in food according to a(More)
Adult human subjects engaged in a simulated Rock/Paper/Scissors game against a computer opponent. The computer opponent's responses were determined by programmed probabilities that differed across 10 blocks of 100 trials each. Response allocation in Experiment 1 was well described by a modified version of the generalized matching equation, with(More)
Behavior plays an important role in health promotion. Exercise, smoking cessation, medication adherence, and other healthy behavior can help prevent, or even treat, some diseases. Consequently, interventions that promote healthy behavior have become increasingly common in health care settings. Many of these interventions award incentives contingent upon(More)
INTRODUCTION Smoking can be conceptualized as an operant behavior maintained by the reinforcing effects of cigarettes. Changing the magnitude and availability of alternative reinforcers should shift behavior away from smoking. Adults' smoking behavior is sensitive to the magnitude and availability of alternative reinforcers; however, the extent to which the(More)
A common incentive used to induce students to serve as subjects in psychological research is course credit, in which hours of participation in research serve as a required component of the student's final grade in introductory psychology courses. Kangas and Hackenberg (2009) recently examined its use in human operant research and showed that following a(More)
In this paper we describe a machine vision system capable of high-resolution measurement of fluid velocity fields in complex 2D models of rock, providing essential data for the validation of the numerical models which are widely applied in the oil and petroleum industries. Digital models, incorporating the properties of real rock, are first generated, then(More)
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