Rachel B. Kaufmann

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Many studies have reported the results of interventions to reduce illness through improvements in drinking water, sanitation facilities, and hygiene practices in less developed countries. There has, however, been no formal systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the evidence of the relative effectiveness of these interventions. We developed a(More)
CONTEXT Lead exposures have been shown to be associated with increased blood pressure and risk of hypertension in older men. In perimenopausal women, skeletal lead stores are an important source of endogenous lead exposure due to increased bone demineralization. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship of blood lead level with blood pressure and hypertension(More)
Blood lead measurements were obtained on 13,642 persons aged 1 year and older who participated in Phase 2 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) from 1991 through 1994. NHANES III is a national representative survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population. The overall mean blood lead level for the U.S.(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the association between lead exposure and children's physical growth. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. PARTICIPANTS A total of 4391 non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American children age 1 to 7 years. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS We(More)
The ALAD gene (chromosome 9q34) codes for δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) (E.C. 4.2.1.24). ALAD catalyzes the second step of heme synthesis and is polymorphic. The ALAD G177C polymorphism yields two codominant alleles, ALAD-1 and ALAD-2, and it has been implicated in susceptibility to lead toxicity. Genotype frequencies vary by geography and(More)
The ALAD gene (chromosome 9q34) codes for delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) (E.C. 4.2.1.24). ALAD catalyzes the second step of heme synthesis and is polymorphic. The ALAD G177C polymorphism yields two codominant alleles, ALAD-1 and ALAD-2, and it has been implicated in susceptibility to lead toxicity. Genotype frequencies vary by geography and(More)
This study examined 2,006 pregnant women chronically exposed to a range of naturally-occurring concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water in three upazilas in Bangladesh to find out relationships between arsenic exposure and selected reproductive health outcomes. While there was a small but statistically significant association between arsenic exposure and(More)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that local public health agencies use local data to identify children at risk for lead exposure to ensure that they receive preventive services. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of a geographic information system (GIS) in identifying children at risk for lead exposure. We(More)
In a nationally representative sample of sexually experienced youths aged 14-22, 37% of young women and 52% of young men said the condom was the primary method used to prevent pregnancy at last intercourse; an additional 8% and 7%, respectively, said they used a condom at last intercourse; much of this represents dual use [corrected]. Condom use at last(More)
This study was conducted to describe trends in US lead poisoning-related deaths between 1979 and 1998. The predictive value of relevant ICD-9 codes was also evaluated. Multiple cause-of-death files were searched for records containing relevant ICD-9 codes, and underlying causes and demographic characteristics were assessed. For 1979-1988, death certificates(More)