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Around 50% of people, almost all in developing countries, rely on coal and biomass in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy. These materials are typically burnt in simple stoves with very incomplete combustion. Consequently, women and young children are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution every day. There is consistent(More)
Improved biomass cookstoves have the potential to reduce pollutant emissions and thereby reduce pollution exposure among populations in developing countries who cook daily with biomass fuels. However, evaluation of such interventions has been very limited. This article presents results from a study carried out in 30 households in rural Guatemala.(More)
SETTING Persons in whom targeted testing for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is recommended in Seattle, Washington; Atlanta, Georgia; and central North Carolina, United States. OBJECTIVE To compare the performance of an interferon-gamma release assay (QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube [QFT-GIT]) with the tuberculin skin test (TST) among foreign-born,(More)
The goal of this study was to assess the impact of improved stoves, house ventilation, and child location on levels of indoor air pollution and child exposure in a rural Guatemalan population reliant on wood fuel. The study was a random sample of 204 households with children less than 18 months in a rural village in the western highlands of Guatemala.(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic bronchitis is an important public health problem worldwide. A study was undertaken to examine the association between exposure to air pollution from domestic biomass fuel combustion and chronic bronchitis in two rural Bolivian highland villages: a village in which cooking is done exclusively indoors and a village in which cooking is done(More)
BACKGROUND A new generation of diagnostic tests, the interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs), have been developed for the detection of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Limited data are available on their use in HIV-infected persons. METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out at 2 HIV clinics in Atlanta to assess the utility of two IGRA tests(More)
School closures are used to reduce seasonal and pandemic influenza transmission, yet evidence of their effectiveness is sparse. In Argentina, annual winter school breaks occur during the influenza season, providing an opportunity to study this intervention. We used 2005-2008 national weekly surveillance data of visits to a health care provider for(More)
BACKGROUND Lead is a component of tobacco and tobacco smoke, and smokers have higher blood lead levels than do nonsmokers. METHODS We examined the relation between second-hand smoke exposure and blood lead levels in a nationally representative sample of 5592 U.S. children, age 4-16 years, who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition(More)
Vital capacity and residual lung volume (in terms of 1/min or ml/m2 of body surface area) of 357 subjects (205 males, 152 females) was evaluated in La Paz, Bolivia, situated at 3,750 m. The sample included: (1) 37 high altitude rural natives (all male), (2) 125 high altitude urban natives (69 male, 58 female), (3) 85 Bolivians of foreign ancestry(More)
The aerobic capacity of 268 subjects (158 males and 110 females) was evaluated in La Paz, Bolivia situated at 3,750 m. The sample included 1) 39 high altitude rural natives (all male); 2) 67 high altitude urban natives (32 male, 35 female); 3) 69 Bolivians of foreign ancestry acclimatized to high altitude since birth (37 male, 32 female); 4) 50 Bolivians of(More)