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The effects of the shellfish toxin gymnodimine and its analogues (gymnodimine acetate, gymnodimine methyl carbonate and gymnodamine) on cellular viability were tested using the Neuro2a neuroblastoma cell line. Concentrations of toxins up to 10μM had variable effects on reducing cell number as determined using the MTT assay and no effects on the expression(More)
The importance of miRNAs during development and disease processes is well established. However, most studies have been done in cells or with patient tissues, and therefore the physiological roles of miRNAs are not well understood. To unravel in vivo functions of miRNAs, we have generated conditional, reporter-tagged knockout-first mice for numerous(More)
OBJECTIVE Statistical health risk information has proved notoriously confusing and difficult to understand. While past research indicates that presenting risk information in a frequency format is superior to relative risk and probability formats, the optimal characteristics of frequency formats are still unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the(More)
The interaction between estradiol and its receptor in human endometrial adenocarcinoma was investigated in a human tumor-nude mice model. Estradiol treatment was found to activate estrogen receptor (ER), estimated through the measurement of ER in the nuclear fraction. The receptor activation in the tumors was significantly higher in tumors previously(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a ubiquitous human pathogen and the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants. Infection of cells and subsequent formation of syncytia occur through membrane fusion mediated by the RSV fusion protein (RSV-F). A novel in vitro assay of recombinant RSV-F function has been devised and used to(More)
BACKGROUND Most anxiety/depression is not effectively treated. Aims Open evaluation of a free clinic giving immediate computer-aided cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) self-help plus brief advice from a therapist. METHOD Test of outcome of self-referrals who used one of four computer-aided CBT systems for depression, phobia/panic, general anxiety or(More)
Dimeric derivatives (compounds 7 to 9) of the influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir (compound 2), which have linking groups of 14 to 18 atoms in length, are approximately 100-fold more potent inhibitors of influenza virus replication in vitro and in vivo than zanamivir. The observed optimum linker length of 18 to 22 A, together with observations(More)
The major limiting factor in the successful application of adjuvant therapy for metastatic disease is the lack of adjuvant specificity that leads to severe side effects. Reasoning that T cells of the immune system are highly specific, we generated tumor-specific T cells by genetic modification of mouse primary T cells with a chimeric receptor reactive with(More)
The synthesis, antiviral and pharmacokinetic properties of zanamivir (ZMV) dimers 8 and 13 are described. The compounds are highly potent neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors which, along with dimer 3, are being investigated as potential second generation inhaled therapies both for the treatment of influenza and for prophylactic use. They show outstanding activity(More)
The Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) is a simple widely used 5-item measure of disability whose psychometric properties need more analysis in phobic disorders. The reliability, factor structure, validity, and sensitivity to change of the WSAS were studied in 205 phobic patients (73 agoraphobia, 62 social phobia, and 70 specific phobia) who(More)