Rachael R Roberts

Learn More
BACKGROUND As they migrate through the developing gut, a sub-population of enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) begins to differentiate into neurons. The early appearance of neurons raises the possibility that electrical activity and neurotransmitter release could influence the migration or differentiation of ENNCs. METHODS The appearance of(More)
Mutations in genes encoding members of the GDNF and endothelin-3 (Et-3) signaling pathways can cause Hirschsprung's disease, a congenital condition associated with an absence of enteric neurons in the distal gut. GDNF signals through Ret, a receptor tyrosine kinase, and Et-3 signals through endothelin receptor B (Ednrb). The effects of Gdnf, Ret, and ET-3(More)
In mature animals, neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are essential for organized intestinal motility. We investigated motility patterns, and the roles of neurons and myenteric ICC (ICC-MP), in the duodenum and colon of developing mice in vitro. Spatiotemporal mapping revealed regular contractions that propagated in both directions from embryonic(More)
Motility patterns in the mature intestine require the coordinated interaction of enteric neurons, gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and interstitial cells of Cajal. In Hirschsprung's disease, the aganglionic segment causes functional obstruction, and thus the enteric nervous system (ENS) is essential for gastrointestinal motility after birth. Here we review(More)
Colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) are spontaneous, anally propagating constrictions, repeating every 3-5 min in mouse colon in vitro. They are regulated by the enteric nervous system and may be equivalent to mass movement contractions. We examined postnatal development of CMMCs and circular muscle innervation to gain insight into mechanisms(More)
Competition analysis with a number of known bioflavonoids demonstrated that these compounds (luteolin, quercetin, pelargonin) compete for [3H]estradiol binding to cytosol and nuclear type II sites in rat uterine preparations. The inhibition of [3H]estradiol binding to type II sites was specific and these bioflavonoids did not interact with the rat uterine(More)
The rat uterus contains two classes of specific nuclear estrogen-binding sites which may be involved in estrogen action. Type I sites represent the classical estrogen receptor (Kd = 1 nM) and type II sites (Kd = 10-20 nM) are stimulated in the nucleus by estrogen under conditions which cause uterine hyperplasia. Dilution of uterine nuclear fractions from(More)
Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that nonneoplastic tissues, such as rat uterus, contain an endogenous inhibitor of [3H]estradiol binding to nuclear type II sites. Since the stimulation of nuclear type II estrogen binding sites in the rat uterus is highly correlated with the stimulation of uterine growth and DNA synthesis, we have(More)
Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that normal, but not malignant tissues, contain a ligand which competes for [3H]estradiol binding to nuclear type II sites in the rat uterus. Since elevated nuclear levels of type II sites are correlated with estrogen stimulation of uterine growth and DNA synthesis, we believe this ligand may regulate cell(More)
We have studied organ allograft survival in rhesus monkeys conditioned with myeloablative total-body irradiation and T cell-depleted autologous bone marrow transplantation then given a heterotopic MHC-mismatched cardiac allograft in the immediate postmyeloablative period. This model has enabled us to investigate the role of T cells in vascularized organ(More)