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The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) is a standard procedure for assessing executive functioning early in development. In the task, participants switch from sorting cards one way (e.g., by color) to sorting them a different way (e.g., by shape). Traditional accounts associate age-related changes in DCCS performance with circumscribed changes in lateral(More)
UNLABELLED The oldest known method for relieving pain is music, and yet, to date, the underlying neural mechanisms have not been studied. Here, we investigate these neural mechanisms by applying a well-defined painful stimulus while participants listened to their favorite music or to no music. Neural responses in the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord were(More)
Brain activation associated with dimensional shifts of attention was measured in 14 children and 13 adults using 4 T fMRI. Across all participants, dimensional shifting was associated with activity in a distributed frontoparietal network, including superior parietal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal junction, and the pre-supplementary(More)
INTRODUCTION While numerous studies have documented evidence for plasticity of the human brain there is little evidence that the human spinal cord can change after injury. Here, we employ a novel spinal fMRI design where we stimulate normal and abnormal sensory dermatomes in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury and perform a connectivity analysis to(More)
Previous functional MRI studies of normal sensory function in the human spinal cord, including right-to-left symmetry of activity, have been influenced by order effects between repeated studies. In this study, we apply thermal sensory stimulation to four dermatomes within each functional MRI time-series acquisition. Each of the four dermatomes receives a(More)
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is a debilitating chronic pain condition, which afflicts primarily females. Although the etiology of this illness is not completely understood, FM pain is thought to rely on enhanced pain sensitivity maintained by central mechanisms. One of these mechanisms is central pain amplification, which is characterized by altered temporal(More)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has previously been linked to structural changes in several brain regions, particularly in the medial temporal lobes (Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2010; Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2011). This has been determined using voxel-based morphometry, segmentation algorithms, and analysis of shape deformations (Bell-McGinty et al.,(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is currently the only non-invasive in vivo assessment of white matter tract integrity. Capitalizing on the diffusion properties of water within an axon, DTI enables the visualization of tissue structure at a microscopic scale. Furthermore, measurements of anisotropy and diffusivity enable the detection of subtle details of the(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this work is to characterize the noise in spinal cord functional MRI, assess current methods aimed at reducing noise, and optimize imaging parameters. METHODS Functional MRI data were acquired at multiple echo times and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was calculated. Independently, the repetition time was systematically varied(More)
Advances in technology in recent decades have contributed to rapid developments in non-invasive methods for imaging human anatomy, and advanced imaging methods are now one of the primary tools for clinical diagnosis after neurological trauma or disease. Here we review the current and upcoming capabilities of one of the most rapidly developing methods,(More)