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1. Introduction This paper proposes a control technique for navigation of intelligent mobile robots. Cooperative behaviours using a colony of robots are becoming more and more significant in industrial, commercial and scientific application. Applications in the area of service robotics demand a high degree of system autonomy, which robots without learning(More)
Ferritins, highly symmetrical protein nanocages, are reactors for Fe(2+) and dioxygen or hydrogen peroxide that are found in all kingdoms of life and in many different cells of multicellular organisms. They synthesize iron concentrates required for cells to make cofactors of iron proteins (heme, FeS, mono and diiron). The caged ferritin biominerals,(More)
Ferritins, a complex, mineralized, protein nanocage family essential for life, provide iron concentrates and oxidant protection. Protein-based ion channels and Fe(II)/O(2) catalysis initiate conversion of thousands of Fe atoms to caged, ferritin Fe(2)O(3)·H(2)O minerals. The ion channels consist of six helical segments, contributed by 3 of 12 or 24(More)
Ferritin biominerals are protein-caged metabolic iron concentrates used for iron-protein cofactors and oxidant protection (Fe(2+) and O2 sequestration). Fe(2+) passage through ion channels in the protein cages, like membrane ion channels, required for ferritin biomineral synthesis, is followed by Fe(2+) substrate movement to ferritin enzyme (Fox) sites.(More)
Ferritins reversibly synthesize iron-oxy(ferrihydrite) biominerals inside large, hollow protein nanocages (10-12 nm, ∼480 000 g/mol); the iron biominerals are metabolic iron concentrates for iron protein biosyntheses. Protein cages of 12- or 24-folded ferritin subunits (4-α-helix polypeptide bundles) self-assemble, experimentally. Ferritin biomineral(More)
Metabolism of iron derived from insoluble and/or scarce sources is essential for pathogenic and environmental microbes. The ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to acquire iron from exogenous ferritin was assessed; ferritin is an iron-concentrating and antioxidant protein complex composed of a catalytic protein and caged ferrihydrite nanomineral synthesized(More)
Ferritin protein nanocages, self-assembled from four-α-helix bundle subunits, use Fe(2+) and oxygen to synthesize encapsulated, ferric oxide minerals. Ferritin minerals are iron concentrates stored for cell growth. Ferritins are also antioxidants, scavenging Fenton chemistry reactants. Channels for iron entry and exit consist of helical hairpin segments(More)
Ferritins, complex protein nanocages, form internal iron-oxy minerals (Fe2O3·H2O), by moving cytoplasmic Fe2+ through intracage ion channels to cage-embedded enzyme (2Fe2+/O2 oxidoreductase) sites where ferritin biomineralization is initiated. The products of ferritin enzyme activity are diferric oxy complexes that are mineral precursors. Conserved,(More)
Detailed circular dichroism studies have been carried out to monitor thermal as well as denaturant induced unfolding of CYP175A1 from Thermus thermophilus and its mesophilic homologue, CYP101 from Pseudomonas putida. The unfolding midpoint temperatures for tertiary and secondary structures of the substrate-free CYP175A1 were found to be 83.7 degrees C and(More)