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Methylation of cytosines is an essential epigenetic modification in mammalian genomes, yet the rules that govern methylation patterns remain largely elusive. To gain insights into this process, we generated base-pair-resolution mouse methylomes in stem cells and neuronal progenitors. Advanced quantitative analysis identified low-methylated regions (LMRs)(More)
Topoisomerases are essential for DNA replication in dividing cells, but their genomic targets and function in postmitotic cells remain poorly understood. Here we show that a switch in the expression from Topoisomerases IIα (Top2α) to IIβ (Top2β) occurs during neuronal differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Genome-scale location analysis in stem cell-derived(More)
Distal regulatory elements, including enhancers, play a critical role in regulating gene activity. Transcription factor binding to these elements correlates with Low Methylated Regions (LMRs) in a process that is poorly understood. Here we ask whether and how actual occupancy of DNA-binding factors is linked to DNA methylation at the level of individual(More)
PR-Set7/SET8 is a histone H4-lysine 20 methyltransferase required for normal cell proliferation. However, the exact functions of this enzyme remain to be determined. In this study, we show that human PR-Set7 functions during S phase to regulate cellular proliferation. PR-Set7 associates with replication foci and maintains the bulk of H4-K20 mono- and(More)
Severe head injury is frequently associated with focal or global disturbances of cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Routine monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in these patients does not provide information about critically reduced local or global cerebral blood flow. Measurements of cerebral lactate difference,(More)
For the most part metazoan genomes are highly methylated and harbor only small regions with low or absent methylation. In contrast, partially methylated domains (PMDs), recently discovered in a variety of cell lines and tissues, do not fit this paradigm as they show partial methylation for large portions (20%-40%) of the genome. While in PMDs methylation(More)
As a component of chromatin-modifying complexes with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, TRRAP has been shown to be involved in various cellular processes including gene transcription and oncogenic transformation. Inactivation of Trrap, the murine ortholog of TRRAP, in mice revealed its function in development and cell cycle progression. However, the(More)
BACKGROUND This study was designed to determine the debated prognostic significance of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positivity in melanoma patients' sentinel lymph node (SLN) negative by conventional histopathology (PATH). PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with primary stage I-II cutaneous melanoma underwent radioguided sentinel(More)
Severe head injury is frequently associated with extracranial injuries causing hemorrhagic hypotension. Volume replacement with isotonic fluids not only is therapeutically of limited efficacy but may aggravate posttraumatic brain edema. On the other side, hypertonic/hyperoncotic saline/dextran solution (HHS) shown to restore cardiovascular function in(More)
Brain oedema is an important factor which compromises maintenance of the cerebral blood flow. Conversely, primary blood flow disturbances are leading to brain oedema. The mechanisms underlying blood flow impairment by brain oedema are associated with an increased regional tissue pressure in proportion to the degree of water accumulation in the parenchyma.(More)