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In C. elegans embryos, a Wnt/MAPK signaling pathway downregulates the TCF/LEF transcription factor POP-1, resulting in a lower nuclear level in signal-responsive cells compared to their sisters. Although the beta-catenin WRM-1 is required for POP-1 downregulation, a direct interaction between these two proteins does not seem to be required, as the(More)
Distinct classes of neurons are generated from progenitor cells distributed in characteristic dorsoventral patterns in the developing spinal neural tube. We define restricted neural progenitor populations by the discrete, nonoverlapping expression of Ngn1, Math1, and Mash1. Crossinhibition between these bHLH factors is demonstrated and provides a mechanism(More)
A differential-sensitivity account of cognitive processing is described that emphasizes the development of perceptual sensitivity to object relations that are directly perceived. Four experiments are presented that investigate this account and compare it to the integrality-separability view of development and the view that younger children are nonselective(More)
The role of interaural time differences in infants' sound localization was investigated. One experiment on free-field sound localization corroborated previous findings that the minimum audible angle changes substantially toward the end of the first half year after birth, and 3 experiments explored interaural time discrimination in that age range. The first(More)
The pressure of a sound varies systematically with a listener's distance from a sound source, providing a useful cue for perceiving changes in the distance between a listener and a sound-producing object. The pressure-discrimination hypothesis predicts that thresholds for discriminating changes in distance are constrained by the underlying ability to(More)
The effects of salience on 4- and 6-year-old children's ability to classify multiplicatively was investigated. A rank-ordered salience hierachy consisting of 3 dimensions was first assessed for each S. Several weeks later half the Ss of each age group were presented with a series of 9 3 times 3 matrix problems consisting of values from 2 dimensions ranked(More)
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the perceptual primacy of dimensional and similarity relations in the stimulus classifications of younger and older subjects. In Experiment 1, 4- and 10-year-olds were given free classifications in which they could group stimuli according to overall similarity or identities in size, color, or orientation. Both(More)
Kindergarten children were given a salience-assessment task to determine each child's salience hierarchy for the dimensions of form, color, and position. The children were then assigned to either a control condition or one of 3 conditions providing different types of perceptual training with the child's least salient dimension. In a subsequent location(More)
The ability of 6- and 11-year-old children to solve problems requiring the analysis or the synthesis of salience-assessed stimulus relations was investigated. The relative salience of the relations of form, color, and position was assessed and a salience hierachy determined for each child. Following salience assessment, children were given a recall problem(More)