Raaji K Alagappan

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We have detected deletions of portions of the Y chromosome long arm in 12 of 89 men with azoospermia (no sperm in semen). No Y deletions were detected in their male relatives or in 90 other fertile males. The 12 deletions overlap, defining a region likely to contain one or more genes required for spermatogenesis (the Azoospermia Factor, AZF). Deletion of(More)
It is widely believed that most or all Y-chromosomal genes were once shared with the X chromosome. The DAZ gene is a candidate for the human Y-chromosomal Azoospermia Factor (AZF). We report multiple copies of DAZ (> 99% identical in DNA sequence) clustered in the AZF region and a functional DAZ homologue (DAZH) on human chromosome 3. The entire gene family(More)
The presence of two active X chromosomes (XaXa) is a hallmark of the ground state of pluripotency specific to murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Human ESCs (hESCs) invariably exhibit signs of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) and are considered developmentally more advanced than their murine counterparts. We describe the establishment of XaXa hESCs derived(More)
The DAZ genes are candidate fertility factors that lie within the human Y chromosome's AZFc region, whose deletion is a common cause of spermatogenic failure. The number of DAZ genes has been difficult to determine, in part because the nucleotide sequences of the DAZ genes are nearly identical. Here, fluorescence in situ hybridization and characterization(More)
Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells provide a unique tool for the study of human disease, as well as a promising source for cell replacement therapies. One crucial limitation has been the inability to perform experiments under genetically defined conditions. This is particularly relevant for late age onset(More)
BACKGROUND About 13% of cases of non-obstructive azoospermia are caused by deletion of the azoospermia factor (AZF), a gene or gene complex normally located on the long arm of the Y chromosome. Oligozoospermia is far more common than azoospermia, but little is known about genetic causes. We investigated whether severe oligozoospermia is caused by AZF(More)
Some men with non-obstructive azoospermia harbour fully formed spermatozoa within their testicular tissue that can be used to achieve pregnancy via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Recently, Reijo et al. (1995) provided compelling evidence that the DAZ gene cluster is a strong candidate for one of the elusive azoospermia factors (AZF) located on the(More)
Y chromosome deletions encompassing the AZFc region have been reported in 13% of azoospermic men and 7% of severely oligozoospermic men. We examined the impact of these Y deletions on the severity of testicular defects in 51 azoospermic men undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) after testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and 30 men with severe(More)
The human X and Y chromosomes share many blocks of similar DNA sequence. We conducted mapping and nucleotide sequencing studies of extensive, multi-megabase homologies between Yp and Xq21, which do not recombine during male meiosis. We confirmed and built upon previous evidence that a Yp inversion had occurred during evolution: a single contiguous segment(More)
Y-linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have served as powerful tools for reconstructing the worldwide genealogy of human Y chromosomes and for illuminating patrilineal relationships among modern human populations. However, there has been no systematic, worldwide survey of sequence variation within the protein-coding genes of the Y chromosome. Here(More)