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Interpatient differences in the oral clearance of cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin) have been partially attributed to variation in the activity of a single liver enzyme termed CYP3A4. Recently it has been shown that small bowel also contains CYP3A4, as well as P-glycoprotein, a protein able to transport cyclosporine. To assess the importance of these(More)
Cognitive impairment remains a major complication of advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy. Diagnosis is made by exclusion making biomarkers of great potential use. Thus, we used an integrated proteomics platform to assess cerebrospinal fluid protein profiles from 50 HIV-1 seropositive(More)
HIV infection is increasing in minority groups, particularly in African American and Hispanic women. Although the incidence of HIV dementia has decreased since the advent of highly active antiretroviral treatment, prevalence of neurocognitive complications has increased as patients are now living longer. This study's purpose was to determine the(More)
BACKGROUND Specific proteins produced from monocytes may be linked to the pathogenesis and aid in the diagnosis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). OBJECTIVE The authors assessed whether a diagnostic phenomic protein profile could be obtained from monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from HIV-1-infected patients with cognitive impairment. METHODS(More)
Cigarette smoking alters the immune system and may improve cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders. Smoking prevalence is high in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—infected patients; however, its effect on HIV-associated cognitive impairment remains unknown in the era of antiretroviral treatment. The authors examined associations of smoking with(More)
PURPOSE Monocyte ingress into the brain during progressive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection parallels the severity of cognitive impairments. Although activated monocyte phenotypes emerge in disease, the functional correlates of these cells remain unresolved. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN To this end, we studied the proteome of blood-derived monocytes(More)
This is a report of a symposium held at the March 1997 meeting of the American Society for Pharmacology and Therapeutics in San Diego. Our understanding of the events that control first-pass drug elimination in humans has increased tremendously by two sequential discoveries. First, cytochrome P-450s 3A4 and 5 are expressed at high concentrations in both(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Atheroembolism, caused by peripheral embolization of small cholesterol crystals that fracture off of ruptured atherosclerotic plaques in the major vessels, leads to multifocal ischemic lesions and progressive tissue loss. The end result is often ischemic injury in the skin, kidney, brain, myocardium, and intestine, but any organ(More)
The emergence of a subset of circulating monocytes during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease has been shown to correlate with cognitive impairment. Thus, it is hypothesized that diagnostic protein profiles may be obtained from these cells from patients with or at risk for HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). To address this possibility, we used(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cognitive impairment, a significant cause of morbidity, affects up to 30% of HIV-infected people. Its prevalence doubled as patients began to live longer after the introduction of highly active retroviral therapy. Women are now one of the fastest growing groups with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in(More)