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BACKGROUND & AIMS Until now, the basic matrix-producing cell type responsible for pancreas fibrosis has not been identified. In this report, retinoid-containing pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) in rat and human pancreas are described, and morphological and biochemical similarities to hepatic stellate cells are shown. METHODS Electron and(More)
Owing to the lack of randomised controlled trials no standard of chemotherapy exists in the treatment of advanced biliary tract carcinoma. 5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine is recommended based on small and predominately phase II trials. The aim of this analysis was to analyse existing trials, even small and nonrandomised, and identify superior regimens.(More)
NF-kappaB2 (p100/p52), a member of the NF-kappaB/Rel family of transcription factors, is involved in the regulation of a variety of genes important for immune function. Previously, we have shown that the NF-kappaB2 gene is regulated in a positive and a negative manner. Two kappaB elements within the NF-kappaB2 promoter mediate tumor necrosis factor(More)
Unmethylated CpG motifs in bacterial DNA, plasmid DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) activate dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages in a CD40-CD40 ligand-independent fashion. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved we focused on the cellular uptake of CpG ODN, the need for endosomal maturation and the role of the stress kinase pathway.(More)
Transcription factors of the NF-kappaB/Rel family are critical for inducible expression of multiple genes involved in inflammatory responses. Sulfasalazine and its salicylate moiety 5-aminosalicylic acid are among the most effective agents for treating inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the mode of action of these drugs remains(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) contains two binding sites for NF-kappa B in close proximity to three binding sites for the constitutive transcription factor, Sp1. Previously, stimulation of the HIV enhancer in response to mitogens has been attributed to the binding of NF-kappa B to the viral enhancer. In this report, we(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Activation of NF-kappaB/Rel has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Various drugs used in the treatment of IBD, such as glucocorticoids, 5-aminosalicylic acid, and sulfasalazine, interfere with NF-kappaB/Rel signaling. The aim of this study was to define the molecular mechanism by which sulfasalazine(More)
The aim of this study was to identify fibrogenic mediators stimulating activation, proliferation, and/or matrix synthesis of rat pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). PSC were isolated from the pancreas of normal Wistar rats and from rats with cerulein pancreatitis. Cell activation was demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy of smooth muscle alpha-actin(More)
BACKGROUND Although histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are promising cancer therapeutics regulating proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, molecular pathways engaged by specific HDAC isoenzymes in cancer are ill defined. RESULTS In this study we demonstrate that HDAC2 is highly expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), especially in(More)