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Leukocytes respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at nanogram per milliliter concentrations with secretion of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Excess secretion of TNF-alpha causes endotoxic shock, an often fatal complication of infection. LPS in the bloodstream rapidly binds to the serum protein, lipopolysaccharide binding protein(More)
Protein kinases activated by dual phosphorylation on Tyr and Thr (MAP kinases) can be grouped into two major classes: ERK and JNK. The ERK group regulates multiple targets in response to growth factors via a Ras-dependent mechanism. In contrast, JNK activates the transcription factor c-Jun in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines and exposure of cells to(More)
Mammalian cells respond to endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by activation of protein kinase cascades that lead to new gene expression. A protein kinase, p38, that was tyrosine phosphorylated in response to LPS, was cloned. The p38 enzyme and the product of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HOG1 gene, which are both members of the mitogen-activated protein(More)
Mammalian mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases include extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 subgroups. These MAP kinase isoforms are activated by dual phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine. Two human MAP kinase kinases (MKK3 and MKK4) were cloned that phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP(More)
Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed on innate immune cells and respond to the membrane components of Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. When activated, they convey signals to transcription factors that orchestrate the inflammatory response. However, the intracellular signaling events following TLR activation are largely unknown. Here we(More)
The stress-activated p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase defines a subgroup of the mammalian MAP kinases that appear to play a key role in regulating inflammatory responses. Co-expression of constitutively active forms of Rac and Cdc42 leads to activation of p38 while dominant negative Rac and Cdc42 inhibit the ability of interleukin-1 to increase(More)
The innate immune response is the first line of defence against infectious disease. The principal challenge for the host is to detect the pathogen and mount a rapid defensive response. A group of proteins that comprise the Toll or Toll-like family of receptors perform this role in vertebrate and invertebrate organisms. This reflects a remarkable(More)
Big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1), also known as ERK5, is a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase member whose biological role is largely undefined. We have shown previously that the activity of BMK1 in rat smooth muscle cells is up-regulated by oxidants. Here, we describe a constitutively active form of the MAP kinase kinase, MEK5(D), which selectively activates(More)
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are a multigene family activated by many extracellular stimuli. There are three groups of MAP kinases based on their dual phosphorylation motifs, TEY, TPY, and TGY, which are termed extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases, and p38, respectively. A new MAP kinase family member(More)
For cells of the innate immune system to mount a host defence response to infection, they must recognize products of microbial pathogens such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin secreted by Gram-negative bacteria. These cellular responses require intracellular signalling pathways, such as the four MAP kinase (MAPK) pathways. In mammalian cells the(More)