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The morphologies of the cerebral ganglia (brains) of three infraorders of the decapod crustaceans (Astacura-crayfish; Brachyura-crabs; Palinura-spiny lobsters) are described. A common nomenclature is proposed for homologous nerve roots, brain regions, tracts, com-missures, neuropils, and cell body clusters.
Proteolytic activity present in the excreted/secreted (ES) material of newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) Fasciola hepatica was biochemically analyzed. By gelatin substrate SDS-PAGE, only one region of activity was observed in the NEJ ES material at a molecular mass of 29 kDa. Both the secreted cathepsin L from adult fluke and the 29-kDa proteolytic activity of(More)
This study sets out to provide a systematic analysis of the development of the primordial central nervous system (CNS) in embryos of two decapod crustaceans, the Australian crayfish Cherax destructor (Malacostraca, Decapoda, Astacida) and the parthenogenetic Marbled crayfish (Marmorkrebs, Malacostraca, Decapoda, Astacida) by histochemical labelling with(More)
It has been previously suggested that there is a conservative program for neural development amongst the arthropods, on the basis that a stereotyped set of cells involved in establishing the axon tracts in the CNS of insect embryos is also present in crayfish embryos. We have examined the spatiotemporal pattern of axon growth from a set of early(More)
Passive intraperitoneal transfer of sera from Fasciola hepatica-infected sheep, cattle or rats can protect naive rats from F. hepatica infection, suggesting a parasite killing mechanism within the peritoneal cavity that is dependent on the presence of parasite-specific antibody. We investigated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity by resident(More)
Irradiation has been successful in the attenuation of infective stage parasites for use as vaccines against a number of parasites including Fasciola spp. The mechanisms of action of irradiation-attenuated vaccines, however, are not clearly understood. In this study, we examined the effect of 3, 10, and 40 krad of gamma-irradiation on the expression of(More)
Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a pleiotropic cytokine, is essential for blastocyst implantation in mice and maintains the development of ovine embryos in culture. The expression of LIF was examined by northern blot analysis in endometrial tissue from cyclic (days 4-16) and pregnant (days 4-20) ewes, and the corresponding protein was immunolocalized.(More)
Taraxastane, oleanane, ursane, lupane, taraxane, cycloartane, dammarane and tirucallane triterpenoids isolated from flowers of Compositae plants have been previously reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects and are variously competitive and non-competitive inhibitors of the serine proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin. The general features of those(More)
The lupane triterpenoid lupeol, the ursane triterpenoid alpha-amyrin and esters of these compounds are present in the bark of roots of Alstonia boonei (Apocynaceae) and have anti-inflammatory properties. alpha-Amyrin is a competitive inhibitor of bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin (Ki values 29 microM and 18 microM, respectively). Lupeol linoleate, lupeol(More)
BACKGROUND The aims of the present study were to identify the common gastrointestinal nematodes, to assess the prevalence of infestation with gastrointestinal nematodes, and to assess some potential indirect determinants of nematode parasitism in Victorian Pony Club horses. METHODS A total of 106 horses from five Pony Clubs from outer Melbourne and(More)