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OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the established impaired phagocyte function in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients also affects apoptotic cell clearance. Accumulation of apoptotic waste as a source for autoantigens that induce and maintain autoimmune responses is discussed. METHODS Apoptosis was detected by morphology and propidium iodide(More)
The phagocytosis of dying cells is an integral feature of apoptosis and necrosis. There are many receptors involved in recognition of dying cells, however, the molecular mechanisms of the scavenging process remain elusive. The activation by necrotic cells of complement is well established, however, the importance of complement in the scavenging process of(More)
Analysis of somatic mutations revealed that anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) autoantibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) share features of a T cell dependent, antigen driven immune response. Therefore we analysed the length diversity of the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) of T cell receptor (TCR) by high resolution gel(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether histone-specific T helper (Th) cells that are able to induce anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies can be isolated from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to characterize the cytokine secretion pattern of such Th clones. METHODS Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from SLE patients and healthy(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can be a severe and potentially life-threatening disease that often represents a therapeutic challenge because of its heterogeneous organ manifestations. Only glucocorticoids, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide and very recently belimumab have been approved for SLE therapy in Germany,(More)
Dying cells were basically unnoticed by scientists for a long time and only came back into the spotlight roughly 10 years ago. The process of recognition and uptake of apoptotic and necrotic cells is complex and failures in this process can contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we discuss the(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial disease and its pathogenesis and precise aetiology remain unknown. Under physiological conditions, neither apoptotic nor necrotic cell material is easily found in tissues because of its quick removal by a highly efficient scavenger system. Autoantigens are found in apoptotic and necrotic material and(More)