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Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored influenza hemagglutinin (GPI-HA) mediates hemifusion, whereas chimeras with foreign transmembrane (TM) domains mediate full fusion. A possible explanation for these observations is that the TM domain must be a critical length in order for HA to promote full fusion. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed biochemical(More)
We showed previously that substitution of the first residue of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) fusion peptide Gly1 with Glu abolishes fusion activity. In the present study we asked whether this striking phenotype was due to the charge or side-chain volume of the substituted Glu. To do this we generated and characterized six mutants with substitutions at(More)
We tested the role of the "spring-loaded" conformational change in the fusion mechanism of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) by assessing the effects of 10 point mutants in the region of high coiled-coil propensity, HA2 54-81. The mutants included proline substitutions at HA2 55, 71, and 80, as well as a double proline substitution at residues 55 and 71.(More)
Influenza virus hemagglutinin undergoes a conformational change in which a loop-to-helix "spring-loaded" conformational change forms a coiled coil that positions the fusion peptide for interaction with the target bilayer. Previous work has shown that two proline mutations designed to disrupt this change disrupt fusion but did not determine the basis for the(More)
The accuracy of visual inspection of wool lots for lice as a test for louse infestation was estimated using information provided by 178 woolgrowers in Queensland, Australia. The estimated sensitivity of inspection was 36% (95% confidence interval, 19-58%) and the specificity was 95% (95% CI, 88-98%). Accuracy was influenced by timing, after shearing, of(More)
OBJECTIVE An evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine/ketoconazole shampoo baths on the flea control efficacy of indoxacarb applied topically to dogs. METHODS AND RESULTS We randomly allocated 18 healthy mixed-breed dogs to 3 groups: shampoo only; indoxacarb treated and medicated shampoo; and indoxacarb treated but not shampooed. Indoxacarb was(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure the amounts of pesticide residue in wool grown in Queensland between 1997 and 1999, and to describe the use of pesticides for the control of lice infestations and blowfly strike in Queensland sheep flocks. DESIGN Pesticide residues were measured in a random sample of wool from Queensland clips offered for sale during 1998 and 1999.(More)