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Leukocyte immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptors [LILRs, also known as Ig-like transcripts (ILTs)] are a family of inhibitory and stimulatory receptors encoded within the leukocyte receptor complex and are expressed by immune cell types of both myeloid and lymphoid lineage. Several members of the LILR family recognize major histocompatibility complex class I.(More)
The sensitivity and specificity of four real-time PCR assays (HPA A(H1)v, CDC A (H1)v, HPA A(N1)v and NVRL S-OIV assays) was evaluated for detection of influenza A(H1N1)v viruses. Nose and throat swab samples containing influenza A(H1N1)v viruses, seasonal influenza AH3N2, AH1N1, influenza B viruses, or negative for influenza viruses were tested by the four(More)
A preponderance of females develop autoimmune disease, including juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), yet the reason for this bias remains elusive. Evidence suggests that genetic risk of disease may be influenced by sex. PTPN22 rs2476601 is associated with JIA and numerous other autoimmune diseases, and has been reported to show female-specific association(More)
Reducing the impact of rheumatic diseases in childhood is the fundamental objective of every member of the multi-disciplinary team involved in the care of affected children and families. The means by which this objective may be achieved are broad and include the implementation of a range of non-pharmacological therapies to address the effects of rheumatic(More)
Methods Data from TB screening by tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (Quantiferon TB Gold In tube, (IGRA)) involving at-risk children with rheumatic disease was reviewed. Exposed patients were considered to be at moderate risk of LTBI if they were under 5 years of age, or receiving conventional DMARDs or corticosteroids > 0.5(More)
Background Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a complex autoimmune disorder likely to be determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Mounting evidence shows that epigenetic variation influences autoimmune disease risk. The most well-studied epigenetic mark is DNA methylation; increased methylation of CpG dinucleotides can reduce gene(More)
Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a complex disease determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Whilst prior research has provided preliminary evidence for some factors, most studies have been hindered by small sample sizes and low statistical power. It is clear that to successfully identify causal factors for complex diseases,(More)
Introduction Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) shares clinical features with classic monogenic autoinflammatory diseases, characterised by fevers, arthritis and evanescent rashes. Disease exacerbations are associated with elevated serum cytokine levels including 1L-1b, IL-6, and IL-18; and clinical response to anakinra, canakinumab and(More)