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The immune receptor NOD1 and kinase RIP2 interact with bacterial peptidoglycan on early endosomes to promote autophagy and inflammatory signaling.
The intracellular innate immune receptor NOD1 detects Gram-negative bacterial peptidoglycan (PG) to induce autophagy and inflammatory responses in host cells. To date, the intracellular compartmentExpand
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LipL21 lipoprotein binding to peptidoglycan enables Leptospira interrogans to escape NOD1 and NOD2 recognition
Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis, potentially severe in humans, caused by spirochetal bacteria, Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans). Host defense mechanisms involved in leptospirosis areExpand
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Gas-bubble disease in the brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus)
Abstract Gas-bubble disease in larval and juvenile brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) is described. Stage II protozoeal, larval brown shrimp developed the disease after being placed in water warmed in aExpand
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Hatching events in the cysts of Artemia salina
Abstract Prior to hydration, the cysts of Artemia salina are cup-shaped with a diameter of approximately 0.18 mm. Upon immersion in sea water, the cysts slightly increase in diameter to 0.19 mm andExpand
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Governor General's Rule in Pakistan
Governor General Ghulam Mohammed, by dissolving the Constituent Assembly and shaking up the Cabinet of Prime Minister Mohammed Ali, has again proved himself to be the strong man of Pakistan. TheExpand
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