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Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses.
Wild aquatic bird populations have long been considered the natural reservoir for influenza A viruses with virus transmission from these birds seeding other avian and mammalian hosts, but recent studies in bats have suggested other reservoir species may also exist.
Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia
The findings indicate that domestic ducks in southern China had a central role in the generation and maintenance of this virus, and that wild birds may have contributed to the increasingly wide spread of the virus in Asia.
Evolution of Swine H3N2 Influenza Viruses in the United States
- R. Webby, S. Swenson, S. Krauss, P. Gerrish, S. Goyal, R. Webster
- Medicine, BiologyJournal of Virology
- 15 September 2000
Analysis of the 1999 swine H3N2 isolates showed that the internal gene complex of the triple-reassortant viruses was associated with three recent phylogenetically distinct human-like hemagglutinin (HA) molecules, which supports continued surveillance of U.S. swine populations for influenza virus activity.
Comparative Sequence Analysis of the Symbiosis Island of Mesorhizobium loti Strain R7A
The nucleotide sequence of the R7A island is determined and its deduced genetic complement is compared with that reported for the 611-kb putative symbiosis island of M. loti strain MAFF303099, indicating that the island lacks plasmid replication genes, suggesting that it is a site-specific conjugative transposon.
Infection and Rapid Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Ferrets
Isolation of a Novel Swine Influenza Virus from Oklahoma in 2011 Which Is Distantly Related to Human Influenza C Viruses
Results suggest that C/OK virus represents a new subtype of influenza C viruses that currently circulates in pigs that has not been recognized previously and raises the possibility of reassortment and antigenic shift as mechanisms of influenzaC virus evolution.
The intracellular sensor NLRP3 mediates key innate and healing responses to influenza A virus via the regulation of caspase-1.
Influenza in Migratory Birds and Evidence of Limited Intercontinental Virus Exchange
Overall, the available evidence does not support the perpetuation of HP H5N1 influenza in migratory birds and suggests that the introduction of HP Asian H 5N1 to the Americas by migratoryirds is likely to be a rare event.
Dynamic T cell migration program provides resident memory within intestinal epithelium
It is demonstrated that activation within spleen results in intermediate induction of homing potential to the intestinal mucosa, and it is indicated that this tissue must be seeded with memory T cell precursors shortly after activation.
The polymerase complex genes contribute to the high virulence of the human H5N1 influenza virus isolate A/Vietnam/1203/04
It is suggested that for high virulence in mammalian species an avian H5N1 virus with a cleavable hemagglutinin requires adaptive changes in polymerase genes to overcome the species barrier, and novel antivirals targeting polymerase proteins should be developed.