A new generation of Ca2+ indicators with greatly improved fluorescence properties.
A new family of highly fluorescent indicators has been synthesized for biochemical studies of the physiological role of cytosolic free Ca2+ using an 8-coordinate tetracarboxylate chelating site with stilbene chromophores that offer up to 30-fold brighter fluorescence.
Improved monomeric red, orange and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein
- Nathan Christopher Shaner, R. Campbell, P. Steinbach, B. Giepmans, A. Palmer, R. Tsien
- BiologyNature Biotechnology
- 21 November 2004
The latest red version matures more completely, is more tolerant of N-terminal fusions and is over tenfold more photostable than mRFP1, and three monomers with distinguishable hues from yellow-orange to red-orange have higher quantum efficiencies.
The green fluorescent protein.
- R. Tsien
- BiologyAnnual Review of Biochemistry
- 1 July 1998
In just three years, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria has vaulted from obscurity to become one of the most widely studied and exploited proteins in…
A monomeric red fluorescent protein
- R. Campbell, Oded Tour, R. Tsien
- Biology, ChemistryProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 11 June 2002
This work presents the stepwise evolution of DsRed to a dimer and then either to a genetic fusion of two copies of the protein, i.e., a tandem dimer, or to a true monomer designated mRFP1 (monomeric red fluorescent protein).
Partitioning of Lipid-Modified Monomeric GFPs into Membrane Microdomains of Live Cells
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements in living cells revealed that acyl but not prenyl modifications promote clustering in lipid rafts, and the nature of the lipid anchor on a protein is sufficient to determine submicroscopic localization within the plasma membrane.
Fluorescent indicators for Ca2+based on green fluorescent proteins and calmodulin
New fluorescent indicators for Ca2+ that are genetically encoded without cofactors and are targetable to specific intracellular locations are constructed and dubbed ‘cameleons’.
A guide to choosing fluorescent proteins
- Nathan Christopher Shaner, P. Steinbach, R. Tsien
- Environmental ScienceNature Methods
- 29 November 2005
A unified characterization of the best available FPs provides a useful guide in narrowing down the options for biological imaging tools.
Identification of a signal for rapid export of proteins from the nucleus
Reducing the Environmental Sensitivity of Yellow Fluorescent Protein
- O. Griesbeck, G. Baird, R. Campbell, D. Zacharias, R. Tsien
- BiologyJournal of Biological Chemistry
- 3 August 2001
Citrine is superior to all previous YFPs except when pH or halide sensitivity is desired and is particularly advantageous within genetically encoded fluorescent indicators of physiological signals.