• Publications
  • Influence
The Economic Effects of Climate Change
I review the literature on the economic impacts of climate change, an externality that is unprecedentedly large, complex, and uncertain. Only 14 estimates of the total damage cost of climate changeExpand
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Estimates of the Damage Costs of Climate Change, Part II. Dynamic Estimates
  • R. Tol
  • Economics, Environmental Science
  • 1 February 2002
Monetised estimates of the impact of climate change are derived. Impacts areexpressed as functions of climate change and `vulnerability'. Vulnerabilityis measured by a series of indicators, such asExpand
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Estimates of the Damage Costs of Climate Change. Part 1: Benchmark Estimates
  • R. Tol
  • Environmental Science
  • 2002
A selection of the potential impacts of climate change – on agriculture,forestry, unmanaged ecosystems, sea level rise, human mortality, energyconsumption, and water resources – are estimated andExpand
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The Social Cost of Carbon: Trends, Outliers and Catastrophes
estimates of the social cost of carbon are included in a meta-analysis. The results confirm that a lower discount rate implies a higher estimate; and that higher estimates are found in the grayExpand
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Weathering Climate Change - Some Simple Rules to Guide Adaptation Decisions
This paper discusses some of the elements that may characterise an efficient strategy to adapt to a changing climate. Such a strategy will have to reflect the long time horizon of, and the prevailingExpand
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New Estimates of the Damage Costs of Climate Change
  • R. Tol
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 1998
Monetised estimates of the impact of climate change are derived. Impacts are expressed as functions of climate change and 'vulnerability'. Vulnerability is measured by a series of indicators, such asExpand
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Discounting for Climate Change
It is well-known that the discount rate is crucially important for estimating the social cost of carbon, a standard indicator for the seriousness of climate change and desirable level of climateExpand
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The double trade-off between adaptation and mitigation for sea level rise: an application of FUND
  • R. Tol
  • Economics, Environmental Science
  • 9 May 2007
This paper studies the effects of adaptation and mitigation on the impacts of sea level rise. Without adaptation, the impact of sea level rise would be substantial, almost wiping out entire countriesExpand
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Considering the energy, water and food nexus: Towards an integrated modelling approach
The areas of energy, water and food policy have numerous interwoven concerns ranging from ensuring access to services, to environmental impacts to price volatility. These issues manifest in veryExpand
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The Marginal Costs of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Estimates of the marginal costs of greenhouse gas emissions are an important input to the decision how much society would want to spend on greenhouse gas emission reduction. Marginal cost estimatesExpand
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