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Spikes: Exploring the Neural Code
The authors invite the reader to play the role of a hypothetical observer inside the brain who makes decisions based on the incoming spike trains. Expand
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Entropy and Information in Neural Spike Trains
The nervous system represents time dependent signals in sequences of discrete, identical action potentials or spikes; information is carried only in the spike arrival times. Expand
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Adaptive Rescaling Maximizes Information Transmission
Adaptation is a widespread phenomenon in nervous systems, providing flexibility to function under varying external conditions. Expand
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Efficiency and ambiguity in an adaptive neural code
We examine the dynamics of a neural code in the context of stimuli whose statistical properties are themselves evolving dynamically. Expand
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The metabolic cost of neural information
We derive experimentally based estimates of the energy used by neural mechanisms to code known quantities of information. Expand
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Synergy in a Neural Code
We show that the information carried by compound events in neural spike trainspatterns of spikes across time or across a population of cellscan be measured, independent of assumptions about what these patterns might represent. Expand
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Reading a Neural Code
Neural coding from the point of view of the organism, culminating in algorithms for real-time stimulus estimation based on a single example of the spike train. Expand
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The rate of information transfer at graded-potential synapses
THERE are few estimates of the rates at which spiking neurons transmit information1–5, and none for synapses transmitting graded signals. We have measured the rates at which blowfly (CalliphoraExpand
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Light Adaptation and Reliability in Blowfly Photoreceptors
We characterize the reliability of response of blowfly photoreceptors at different light levels by counting individual photoconversion events, or quantum bumps, at calibrated low light levels. Expand
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Neural coding of natural stimuli: information at sub-millisecond resolution
We have found that under natural stimulus conditions the fly visual system generates spikes and interspike intervals with extraordinary temporal precision. Expand
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