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Early agriculture and crop transmission among Bronze Age mobile pastoralists of Central Eurasia
- R. Spengler, Michael Frachetti, Alexei N. Mar'yashev
- HistoryProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological…
- 22 May 2014
This article presents a new archaeobotanical analysis from pastoralist campsites in the mountain and desert regions of Central Eurasia that documents the oldest known evidence for domesticated grains and farming among seasonally mobile herders.
Prostaglandin E2 regulates macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor gene expression.
Resident cardiac mast cells degranulate and release preformed TNF-alpha, initiating the cytokine cascade in experimental canine myocardial ischemia/reperfusion.
It is suggested that mast cell-derived TNF-alpha may be a crucial factor in upregulating IL-6 in infiltrating leukocytes and initiating the cytokine cascade responsible for myocyte ICAM-1 induction and subsequent neutrophil-induced injury.
Earliest direct evidence for broomcorn millet and wheat in the central Eurasian steppe region
Before 3000 BC, societies of western Asia were cultivating wheat and societies of China were cultivating broomcorn millet; these are early nodes of the world's agriculture. The authors are searching…
Cellular and molecular regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by pentoxifylline.
Pentoxifylline, a methylxanthine, is efficacious in suppressing LPS-induced MO-derived TNF at the level of both TNF mRNA accumulation and TNF supernatant bioactivity, and data support the mechanism for this suppressive effect is via the generation of intracellular cAMP.
Endogenous norepinephrine regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from macrophages in vitro.
- R. Spengler, S. Chensue, D. Giacherio, N. Blenk, S. Kunkel
- Biology, MedicineJournal of immunology
- 15 March 1994
M phi-associated norepinephrine appears to regulate LPS-induced TNF production in an autocrine fashion, suggesting a role for endogenous nore Alpinephrine in M phi.
Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptor augments the production of macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor.
- R. Spengler, R. Allen, D. Remick, R. Strieter, S. Kunkel
- Biology, ChemistryJournal of immunology
- 1 September 1990
The role of alpha 2 adrenergic agonists as immunostaining compounds that may regulate cytokine production during an inflammatory response support the hypothesis that neuroendocrine hormones may participate in immunologic processes.
Moving agriculture onto the Tibetan plateau: the archaeobotanical evidence
- Jade d’Alpoim Guedes, Hongliang Lu, Yongxian Li, R. Spengler, Xiaohong Wu, M. Aldenderfer
- Environmental ScienceArchaeological and Anthropological Sciences
- 1 September 2014
The Tibetan Plateau has one of the least hospitable environments for agriculture on the planet; however, its inhabitants have developed an economic system based on agriculture and pastoralism suited…
Millet cultivation across Eurasia: Origins, spread, and the influence of seasonal climate
It is proposed that the secondary wave of millet cultivation that spread into the summer-dry regions of southern Central Asia is associated with an intensification of productive economies in general, and specifically with the expansion of centrally organized irrigation works.
Agriculture in the Central Asian Bronze Age
- R. Spengler
- 4 September 2015
By the late third/early second millennium BC, increased interconnectivity in the mountains of Central Asia linked populations across Eurasia. This increasing interaction would later culminate in the…