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Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America.
Experimental data support the conclusion that cutaneous chytridiomycosis is a fatal disease of anurans, and it is hypothesize that it is the proximate cause of these recent amphibian declines. Expand
Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines
The role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations is examined and hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics are proposed. Expand
Origin of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus
Histologic evidence indicates southern Africa as the origin of the amphibian chytrid fungus, and it is likely that southern Africa is the birthplace of the fungus. Expand
Spread of Chytridiomycosis Has Caused the Rapid Global Decline and Extinction of Frogs
It is important for the scientific community and conservation agencies to recognize and manage the threat of chytridiomycosis to remaining species of frogs, especially those that are naive to the pathogen. Expand
Life cycle stages of the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.
An overview of the morphology and life cycle of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the cause of chytridiomycosis of amphibians, is presented and adaptations that suggest it has long been evolved to live within cells in the dynamic tissue of the stratified epidermis are suggested. Expand
Pathogenesis of Chytridiomycosis, a Cause of Catastrophic Amphibian Declines
It is shown that Bd infection is associated with pathophysiological changes that lead to mortality in green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea), and in diseased individuals, electrolyte transport across the epidermis was inhibited by >50, plasma sodium and potassium concentrations were respectively reduced by ~20% and ~50%, and asystolic cardiac arrest resulted in death. Expand
Endemic Infection of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in a Frog Community Post-Decline
A longitudinal study of the fungus in individually marked frogs sheds new light on the effect of this threatening infectious process in field, as distinct from laboratory, conditions, and finds a seasonal peak of infection in the cooler months, with no evidence of interannual variation. Expand
Fungicidal effects of chemical disinfectants, UV light, desiccation and heat on the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.
The efficacy of a number of disinfection treatments was tested on in vitro cultures of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the causative agent of chytridiomycosis in amphibians, finding the most effective products for field use were Path-X and the quaternary ammonium compound 128. Expand
Effect of season and temperature on mortality in amphibians due to chytridiomycosis.
Chytridiomycosis is a major cause of mortality in free-living and captive amphibians in Australia and mortality rate increases at lower temperatures. Expand
Epidemic Disease and the Catastrophic Decline of Australian Rain Forest Frogs
In the montane rain forests of eastern Australia at least 14 species of endemic, stream-dwelling frogs have disappeared or declined sharply (by more than 90%) during the past 15 years. We reviewExpand