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The Distribution and Mechanism of Action of Ghrelin in the CNS Demonstrates a Novel Hypothalamic Circuit Regulating Energy Homeostasis
The gastrointestinal peptide hormone ghrelin stimulates appetite in rodents and humans via hypothalamic actions. We discovered expression of ghrelin in a previously uncharacterized group of neuronsExpand
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Species-specific wiring for direction selectivity in the mammalian retina
Directionally tuned signalling in starburst amacrine cell (SAC) dendrites lies at the heart of the circuit that detects the direction of moving stimuli in the mammalian retina. The relativeExpand
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Chromatic Properties of Horizontal and Ganglion Cell Responses Follow a Dual Gradient in Cone Opsin Expression
In guinea pig retina, immunostaining reveals a dual gradient of opsins: cones expressing opsin sensitive to medium wavelengths (M) predominate in the upper retina, whereas cones expressing opsinExpand
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Parallel Mechanisms Encode Direction in the Retina
In the retina, presynaptic inhibitory mechanisms that shape directionally selective (DS) responses in output ganglion cells are well established. However, the nature of inhibition-independent formsExpand
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Architecture of rod and cone circuits to the on-beta ganglion cell
Photoreceptors connect to the on-beta ganglion cell through parallel circuits involving rod bipolar (RB) and cone bipolar (CB) neurons. We estimated for a small patch in the area centralis of oneExpand
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Transmission of single photon signals through a binary synapse in the mammalian retina
At very low light levels the sensitivity of the visual system is determined by the efficiency with which single photons are captured, and the resulting signal transmitted from the rod photoreceptorsExpand
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Direction selectivity in a model of the starburst amacrine cell
The starburst amacrine cell (SBAC), found in all mammalian retinas, is thought to provide the directional inhibitory input recorded in On–Off direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs). While voltageExpand
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NaV1.1 Channels in Axon Initial Segments of Bipolar Cells Augment Input to Magnocellular Visual Pathways in the Primate Retina
In the primate visual system, the ganglion cells of the magnocellular pathway underlie motion and flicker detection and are relatively transient, while the more sustained ganglion cells of theExpand
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Microcircuitry of the dark-adapted cat retina: functional architecture of the rod-cone network
The structure of the rod-cone network in the area centralis of cat retina was studied by reconstruction from serial electron micrographs. About 48 rods converge on each cone via gap junctions betweenExpand
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Rod bipolar array in the cat retina: Pattern of input from rods and GABA‐accumulating amacrine cells
The potential and actual connections between rod and rod bipolar arrays in the area centralis of the cat retina were studied by electron microscopy of serial ultrathin sections. In the region studiedExpand
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