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Classification of European mtDNAs from an analysis of three European populations.
The conclusion that most haplogroups observed in Europe are Caucasoid-specific, and that at least some of them occur at varying frequencies in different Caucasoid populations, is supported.
The emerging tree of West Eurasian mtDNAs: a synthesis of control-region sequences and RFLPs.
It is shown that the main indigenous North African cluster is a sister group to the most ancient cluster of European mtDNAs, from which it diverged approximately 50,000 years ago.
The effective mutation rate at Y chromosome short tandem repeats, with application to human population-divergence time.
This value is used to estimate the times of the African Bantu expansion, the divergence of Polynesian populations (the Maoris, Cook Islanders, and Samoans), and the origin of Gypsy populations from Bulgaria.
Single, Rapid Coastal Settlement of Asia Revealed by Analysis of Complete Mitochondrial Genomes
It is shown that mitochondrial DNA variation in isolated “relict” populations in southeast Asia supports the view that there was only a single dispersal from Africa, most likely via a southern coastal route, through India and onward into southeast Asia and Australasia.
Where west meets east: the complex mtDNA landscape of the southwest and Central Asian corridor.
A number of deep-rooting lineages, whose relative clustering and coalescent ages suggest an autochthonous origin in the southwestern Asian corridor during the Pleistocene are observed.
A back migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa is supported by high-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome haplotypes.
Phylogeographic analyses suggest that a large component of the present Khoisan gene pool is eastern African in origin and that Asia was the source of a back migration to sub-Saharan Africa.
The Role of Selection in the Evolution of Human Mitochondrial Genomes
The surplus of nonsynonymous mutations is a general feature of the young branches of the phylogenetic tree, affecting also those that are found only in Africa, and a new calibration method is introduced to estimate the coalescent times of mtDNA haplogroups.
Prehistoric and historic traces in the mtDNA of Mozambique: insights into the Bantu expansions and the slave trade.
- L. Pereira, V. Macaulay, A. Torroni, R. Scozzari, M. Prata, A. Amorim
- HistoryAnnals of human genetics
- 1 September 2001
The forced displacement of Mozambicans as part of the slave trade generated a differential input of eastern African sequences into the mtDNA pools of the Americas and of Europe, as testified to by the greater number of sequence matches between Mozambique and the Americas, compared to those between Moz Ambique and Europe.
The African diaspora: mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic slave trade.
The results show that mtDNAs in America and Eurasia can, in many cases, be traced to broad geographical regions within Africa, largely in accordance with historical evidence, and raise the possibility that a greater resolution may be possible in the future.
The mtDNA Legacy of the Levantine Early Upper Palaeolithic in Africa
The early Upper Palaeolithic population(s) carrying M1 and U6 did not return to Africa along the southern coastal route of the “out of Africa” exit, but from the Mediterranean area; and the North African Dabban and European Aurignacian industries derived from a common Levantine source.