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A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome
TLDR
The genomic data suggest that Neandertals mixed with modern human ancestors some 120,000 years ago, leaving traces of Ne andertal DNA in contemporary humans, suggesting that gene flow from Neand Bertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other.
Targeted Retrieval and Analysis of Five Neandertal mtDNA Genomes
TLDR
Targeted sequencing improves Neandertal mitochondrial DNA retrieval and reveals low diversity among individuals, and together with analyses of mtDNA protein evolution, these data suggest that the long-term effective population size of Ne andertals was smaller than that of modern humans and extant great apes.
Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Ancient Canids Suggest a European Origin of Domestic Dogs
TLDR
The findings imply that domestic dogs are the culmination of a process that initiated with European hunter-gatherers and the canids with whom they interacted, and molecular dating suggests an onset of domestication there 18,800 to 32,100 years ago.
The Neandertal type site revisited: Interdisciplinary investigations of skeletal remains from the Neander Valley, Germany
TLDR
This work reports excavations of cave sediments that were removed from the Feldhofer caves in 1856 that yielded over 60 human skeletal fragments, along with a large series of Paleolithic artifacts and faunal material that represents the first interdisciplinary analysis of Neandertal remains incorporating genetic, direct dating, and morphological dimensions simultaneously.
DNA sequence of the mitochondrial hypervariable region II from the neandertal type specimen.
TLDR
The results support the concept that the Neandertal mtDNA evolved separately from that of modern humans for a substantial amount of time and lends no support to the idea that they contributed mtDNA to contemporary modern humans.
New Insights Into Mid‐Late Pleistocene Fossil Hominin Paranasal Sinus Morphology
TLDR
Results from a geometric morphometric analysis of the correlation between paranasal sinus and cranial dimensions show that the spandrel hypothesis cannot be refuted, and visualizing specific features of the paranasAL sinus system with methods of biomedical imaging and computer graphics reveals new aspects of patterns of growth and development of fossil hominins.
Isotope evidence for the diet of the Neanderthal type specimen
Stable isotopes extracted from two hominins and a range of animals from the original Neanderthal site shows these Middle Palaeolithic people to have been hunters predominately on a meat diet.
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