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A new genotype of hepatitis B virus: complete genome and phylogenetic relatedness.
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype was determined in a total of 121 plasma samples collected in France and the US from patients chronically infected with HBV. HBV genotype A was predominant in this
Mutations in Retroviral Genes Associated with Drug Resistance
TLDR
The growing number of drug resistance mutations listed in this revised table stands as a testimony to the genetic flexibility of HIV.
Inhibition of the replication of hepatitis B virus in vitro by 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine and related analogues.
TLDR
Two 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiapyrimidine nucleosides were found to be the most potent anti-HBV compounds and both SddC and 5-FSddC should be further evaluated for the treatment of human HBV infection.
Zika Virus Infects Human Placental Macrophages.
Characterization of human immunodeficiency viruses resistant to oxathiolane-cytosine nucleosides
TLDR
Sequence analysis of amplified reverse transcriptase from a patient who had received (-)-BCH-189 therapy for 4 months demonstrated a mixture of the Met-184-to-Val (GTG) mutation and the parental genotype, indicating that theMet-184 mutation can occur in vivo.
Antiviral l-Nucleosides Specific for Hepatitis B Virus Infection
TLDR
A unique series of simple “unnatural” nucleosides has been discovered to inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and are expected to offer new therapeutic options for patients with chronic HBV infection.
The polymerase L528M mutation cooperates with nucleotide binding-site mutations, increasing hepatitis B virus replication and drug resistance.
TLDR
The B-domain mutation (L528M) of HBV polymerase not only restores the replication competence of C-domain mutants, but also increases resistance to nucleoside analogues.
In Vitro Selection of Mutations in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase That Decrease Susceptibility to (−)-β-d-Dioxolane-Guanosine and Suppress Resistance to
TLDR
DXG and certain 2′,3′-dideoxy compounds (e.g., ddI) can select for the same resistance mutations and thus may not be optimal for use in combination and the combination of AZT with DXG or its orally bioavailable prodrug should be explored because of the suppressive effects of the K65R and L74V mutations on AZT resistance.
Selective inhibition of human immunodeficiency viruses by racemates and enantiomers of cis-5-fluoro-1-[2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl]cytosine
TLDR
The results suggest that further development of the (-)-Beta-enantiomer of FTC is warranted as an antiviral agent for infections caused by human immunodeficiency viruses.
Anti-HIV Host Factor SAMHD1 Regulates Viral Sensitivity to Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors via Modulation of Cellular Deoxyribonucleoside Triphosphate (dNTP) Levels*
TLDR
It is found that reduction of SAMHD1 levels with the use of virus-like particles expressing Vpx- and SAM HD1-specific shRNA subsequently elevates cellular dNTPs and significantly decreases HIV-1 sensitivity to various NRTIs in macrophages.
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