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Spreading Dead Zones and Consequences for Marine Ecosystems
Dead zones in the coastal oceans have spread exponentially since the 1960s and have serious consequences for ecosystem functioning, exacerbated by the increase in primary production and consequent worldwide coastal eutrophication fueled by riverine runoff of fertilizers and the burning of fossil fuels.
Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment
Marine benthic hypoxia: a review of its ecological effects and the behavioural responses of benthic macrofauna
Marine quality assessment by use of benthic species-abundance distributions: a proposed new protocol within the European Union Water Framework Directive.
Benthic marine fauna structured by hydrodynamic processes and food availability
- R. Rosenberg
- Environmental Science
- 1 December 1995
Hypoxia-related processes in the Baltic Sea.
- D. Conley, S. Björck, L. Zillén
- Environmental ScienceEnvironmental science & technology
- 18 February 2009
The Baltic Sea is unique for coastal marine ecosystems experiencing N losses in hypoxic waters below the halocline, and Nutrient load reductions are needed to reduce the extent, severity, and effects of hypoxia.
Temporal and spatial large-scale effects of eutrophication and oxygen deficiency on benthic fauna in Scandinavian and Baltic waters - A review
In this review the temporal development of bottom water hypoxia and/or anoxia is discussed and consequent possible losses of sediment-dwelling faunal biomass are roughly calculated.
Characterization of the ecological quality of the coastal Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). A comparative approach based on three biotic indices.
MARINE EUTROPHICATION CASE-STUDIES IN SWEDEN
It is concluded that a reduction by at least half of external N and P inputs to the Baltic sea, and of N input to the Kattegat is needed to mitigate the negative effects of eutrophication.