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Costs of a predictible switch between simple cognitive tasks.
In an investigation of task-set reconfiguration, participants switched between 2 tasks on every 2nd trial in 5 experiments and on every 4th trial in a final experiment. The tasks were to classifyExpand
Choosing between Small, Likely Rewards and Large, Unlikely Rewards Activates Inferior and Orbital Prefrontal Cortex
TLDR
The results suggest that decision making recruits neural activity from multiple regions of the inferior PFC that receive information from a diverse set of cortical and limbic inputs, and that the contribution of the orbitofrontal regions may involve processing changes in reward-related information. Expand
Decision-making processes following damage to the prefrontal cortex.
TLDR
Investigation of cognitive deficits following damage to different sectors of the human prefrontal cortex found that ventral and dorsal aspects of prefrontal cortex must interact in the maintenance of rational and 'non-risky' decision making. Expand
Emotional bias and inhibitory control processes in mania and depression.
TLDR
Observed impairments on tests of memory and planning suggest a global pathology for mania consistent with previous profiles for this disorder and similar to established profiles for depression. Expand
Probabilistic learning and reversal deficits in patients with Parkinson’s disease or frontal or temporal lobe lesions: possible adverse effects of dopaminergic medication
TLDR
Two hypotheses - based on disease severity and possible deleterious effects of medication - are offered to explain the reversal impairments of the PD patients and the results are discussed in terms of the role of dopamine in reward-based learning. Expand
Neural systems engaged by planning: a PET study of the Tower of London task
TLDR
The functional anatomy of planning was investigated using the Tower of London task and enhanced neural activity in both this rostral prefrontal area and the visuospatial working memory system was associated with increased task difficulty. Expand
Willed action and attention to the selection of action
TLDR
It is found that activation in the dorsal prefrontal cortex on a free selection task was not significantly different from that induced by another task that required attention to the selection of action, although the responses were externally specified. Expand
Contrasting Cortical and Subcortical Activations Produced by Attentional-Set Shifting and Reversal Learning in Humans
TLDR
It is proposed that the PFC may contribute to the control of attentional-set by modulating attentional processes mediated by occipito-temporal pathways in distinct cortical and subcortical neural stations. Expand
Attention to Intention
TLDR
Compared conditions in which participants made self-paced actions and attended either to their intention to move or to the actual movement, activity in the pre-supplementary motor area reflects the representation of intention. Expand
Dissociating executive mechanisms of task control following frontal lobe damage and Parkinson's disease.
TLDR
It is proposed that while both left and right frontal cortical areas are involved in the organization of cognitive and motor processes in situations involving novel task demands, only the left frontal cortex isinvolved in the dynamic reconfiguring between already-established task-sets, and specifically, that it is the site of an executive mechanism responsible for the modulation of exogenous task-set activity. Expand
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