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Choosing between Small, Likely Rewards and Large, Unlikely Rewards Activates Inferior and Orbital Prefrontal Cortex
Patients sustaining lesions of the orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibit marked impairments in the performance of laboratory-based gambling, or risk-taking, tasks, suggesting that this part of theExpand
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Emotional bias and inhibitory control processes in mania and depression.
BACKGROUND Despite markedly different clinical presentations, few studies have reported differences in neuropsychological functioning between mania and depression. The disinhibited behaviourExpand
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Probabilistic learning and reversal deficits in patients with Parkinson’s disease or frontal or temporal lobe lesions: possible adverse effects of dopaminergic medication
Three groups of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) - mild, unmedicated (UPD), mild, medicated (MPD) and severe, medicated (SPD) - and patients with lesions of the frontal lobe (FLL) or temporalExpand
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Neural systems engaged by planning: a PET study of the Tower of London task
The functional anatomy of planning was investigated using the Tower of London task. Activation was observed in a distributed network of cortical areas incorporating prefrontal, cingulate, premotor,Expand
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Willed action and attention to the selection of action
We found that activation in the dorsal prefrontal cortex on a free selection task was not significantly different from that induced by another task that required attention to the selection of action, although the responses were externally specified. Expand
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Contrasting Cortical and Subcortical Activations Produced by Attentional-Set Shifting and Reversal Learning in Humans
Much evidence suggests that lesions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) produce marked impairments in the ability of subjects to shift cognitive set, as exemplified by performance of the Wisconsin CardExpand
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Attention to Intention
Intention is central to the concept of voluntary action. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared conditions in which participants made self-paced actions and attended either to theirExpand
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Distinct portions of anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex are activated by reward processing in separable phases of decision-making cognition
BACKGROUND Choosing between actions associated with uncertain rewards and punishments is mediated by neural circuitry encompassing the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), andExpand
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Dissociating executive mechanisms of task control following frontal lobe damage and Parkinson's disease.
Twelve patients with focal damage of the frontal cortex and 12 patients with mild, medicated, early stage Parkinson's disease switched between letter- and digit=naming tasks on every second trial ofExpand
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Executive function in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
BACKGROUND Cognitive performance was compared in the genetically and neurobiologically related disorders of Tourette's syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), in three domains ofExpand
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