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Anxiety, defence and the elevated plus-maze
  • R. Rodgers, A. Dalvi
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 7 November 1997
The elevated plus-maze test can be a very valuable tool in drug screening and in the study of the neurobiology of anxiety and defence and more attention to behaviour and somewhat less emphasis on test simplicity and convenience would seem to be warranted. Expand
Factor analysis of spatiotemporal and ethological measures in the murine elevated plus-maze test of anxiety
The inclusion of ethological measures in the relationship between standard spatiotemporal measures and a range of specific behaviors related to the defensive repertoire of the mouse demonstrated the existence of additional behavioral dimensions. Expand
Corticosterone response to the plus-maze High correlation with risk assessment in rats and mice
Ethological measures are employed in an attempt to further characterise the relationship between behavioural and CORT responses to this widely used animal model of anxiety and confirm that, relative to home-cage controls, 5-min exposure to the plus-maze significantly increases plasma CORT levels in test-naive male Wistar rats and male Swiss-Webster mice. Expand
Ethopharmacological analysis of the effects of putative ‘anxiogenic’ agents in the mouse elevated plus-maze
Ethological methods were used to assess in detail the effects of four putative anxiogenic agents in the murine elevated plus-maze test, and some minor behavioural changes were evident with sodium lactate and isoproterenol. Expand
Influence of spatial and temporal manipulations on the anxiolytic efficacy of chlordiazepoxide in mice previously exposed to the elevated plus-maze
Data suggest that the experientially induced loss of benzodiazepine efficacy in the mouse plus-maze depends rather critically upon prior discovery and exploration of relatively safe areas of the maze (i.e. closed arms). Expand
Responses of Swiss–Webster Mice to Repeated Plus-Maze Experience Further Evidence for a Qualitative Shift in Emotional State?
The present findings are consistent with the proposal that prior test experience produces a qualitative shift in emotional response to the elevated plus-maze, but the precise basis for this change as well as its full significance for the authors' understanding of anxiety-related processes remain to be determined. Expand
Antinociceptive effects of elevated plus-maze exposure: influence of opiate receptor manipulations
Exposure to the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety induced a mild, though enduring, elevation in tail-flick latencies in male mice, supported by the failure of chronic morphine treatment to alter either the antinociceptive or behavioural response to EPM exposure. Expand
GABAergic influences on plus-maze behaviour in mice
Results confirmed the anxiolytic profile of diazepam under present test conditions, and revealed substantially similar effects for the GABA-T inhibitor, valproic acid, and the GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol while the GABAB receptor antagonist was inactive over the dose range studied. Expand
Risk Assessment Behaviour: Evaluation of Utility in the Study of 5-HT-Related Drugs in the Rat Elevated Plus-Maze Test
It is demonstrated that risk assessment responses are sensitive to the action of 5-HT1A receptor ligands, but their modulation by drugs targetting 5- HT2A,5-HT2C, and 4-HT3 receptors was not convincingly established. Expand
Orexins and appetite regulation
The argument is developed that the diverse physiological and behavioural effects of orexins can best be understood in terms of an integrated set of reactions which function to rectify nutritional status without compromising personal survival. Expand