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Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90 056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins
Statin therapy can safely reduce the 5-year incidence of major coronary events, coronary revascularisation, and stroke by about one fifth per mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol, largely irrespective of the initial lipid profile or other presenting characteristics. Expand
Risk of ischemic heart disease in women after radiotherapy for breast cancer.
Exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation during radiotherapy for breast cancer increases the subsequent rate of ischemic heart disease, and the increase is proportional to the mean dose to the heart, begins within a few years after exposure, and continues for at least 20 years. Expand
Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials
It is found that variations in local treatment that substantially affect the risk of locoregional recurrence could also affect long-term breast cancer mortality, and that avoidance of a local recurrence in the conserved breast is recommended. Expand
Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies
Throughout middle and old age, usual blood pressure is strongly and directly related to vascular (and overall) mortality, without any evidence of a threshold down to at least 115/75 mm Hg. Expand
The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today.
Evidence that the various common types of cancer are largely avoidable diseases is reviewed, and it is suggested that, apart from cancer of the respiratory tract, the types of cancers that are currently common are not peculiarly modern diseases and are likely to depend chiefly on some long-established factor. Expand
The natural history of chronic airflow obstruction.
Severe or fatal obstructive lung disease could be prevented by screening smokers' lung function in early middle age if those with reduced function could be induced to stop smoking. Expand
Association of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, albumin, or leukocyte count with coronary heart disease: meta-analyses of prospective studies.
The published results from these prospective studies are remarkably consistent for each factor, indicating moderate but highly statistically significant associations with CHD, even though mechanisms that might account for these associations are not clear. Expand
Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials.
Further reductions in LDL cholesterol safely produce definite further reductions in the incidence of heart attack, of revascularisation, and of ischaemic stroke, with each 1·0 mmol/L reduction reducing the annual rate of these major vascular events by just over a fifth. Expand
Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55 000 vascular deaths
There is conclusive evidence from randomised trials that statins substantially reduce not only coronary event rates but also total stroke rates in patients with a wide range of ages and blood pressures. Expand
MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin in 5963 people with diabetes: a randomised placebo-controlled trial
Direct evidence is provided that cholesterol-lowering therapy is beneficial for people with diabetes even if they do not already have manifest coronary disease or high cholesterol concentrations and statin therapy should now be considered routinely for all diabetic patients at sufficiently high risk of major vascular events, irrespective of their initial cholesterol concentrations. Expand