The geography of thought : how Asians and Westerners think differently--and why
- R. Nisbett
When Richard Nisbett showed an animated underwater scene to his American students, they zeroed in on a big fish swimming among smaller fish. Japanese subjects, on the other hand, made observations…
Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes.
Evidence is reviewed which suggests that there may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. Subjects are sometimes (a) unaware of the existence of a stimulus…
Culture and systems of thought: holistic versus analytic cognition.
The authors find East Asians to be holistic, attending to the entire field and assigning causality to it, making relatively little use of categories and formal logic, and relying on "dialectical"…
Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgment.
Culture, dialectics, and reasoning about contradiction.
Chinese ways of dealing with seeming contradictions result in a dialectical or compromise approach—retaining basic elements of opposing perspectives by seeking a "middle way." On the other hand,…
Culture and Cognition
Evidence for the mutual interdependence of cultural and cognitive processes is reviewed and recent research on marked cultural differences in holistic vs. analytic modes of reasoning primarily between East Asian and Western cultures is examined.
Induction: Processes of Inference, Learning, and Discovery
Induction is the first major effort to bring the ideas of several disciplines to bear on a subject that has been a topic of investigation since the time of Socrates and is included in the Computational Models of Cognition and Perception Series.
Attending holistically versus analytically: comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans.
The results showed that the Japanese made more statements about contextual information and relationships than Americans did and recognized previously seen objects more accurately when they saw them in their original settings rather than in the novel settings, whereas this manipulation had relatively little effect on Americans.