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On mathematical modeling of dermal and transdermal drug delivery.
A model is developed that can predict both the concentration profile and the position of the penetration boundary depending on time and is described on a two-dimensional multilayered domain representing a cross section through human skin. Expand
Influence of propylene glycol as cosolvent on mechanisms of drug transport from hydrogels
Abstract The in vitro penetration of topical glucocorticoids (GC) betamethasone 17-valerate (BMV), hydrocortisone 17-butyrate (HCB) and hydrocortisone (HC) into an artificial lipid acceptor andExpand
Analytical methods for measuring urea in pharmaceutical formulations.
Two new methods are described for the routine determination of urea that utilize HPTLC-densitometry and colorimetry that were compared with an enzymatic method previously described in the literature and found to be in close agreement. Expand
Penetration of salicylic acid and salicylate into the multilayer membrane system and into the human horny layer.
Using a multilayer membrane system and human horny layer the difference in the penetration of salicylic acid (SA) and its sodium and choline salts from topical formulations was studied and the use of the salts of SA appears to be more suitable for the application as keratolytic. Expand
Influence of ion pairing on ex vivo penetration of erythromycin into sebaceous follicles.
The model was shown to be suitable for predicting in vivo penetration of anti-acne formulations into sebaceous glands and doubly enhanced penetration of an ion pair composed of ERY and octadecansulfonate in contrast to the commonly used ERY base was observed. Expand
This article presents a classification of the model systems used for the biopharmaceutical evaluation of topical formulations and traces the factors which have influenced the development of theseExpand
[Modulation of drug penetration in the skin].
The objectives for the use of a penetration modulator are to change the solubility and diffusivity of the drug in the SC reversibly and to distinguish between modulators which influence the lipid pathway and those which are able to modify diffusion via the polar pathway. Expand
Modelling of drug penetration into human skin using a multilayer membrane system.
It was demonstrated that the variability of the acceptor system can be used to adapt the penetration profiles of dithranol in a six-layer membrane system to those in excised human skin. Expand
Experimental determination and mathematical modelling of propylene glycol transport from semisolid vehicles
The penetration of the cosolvent and penetration enhancer propylene glycol (PG) into a multilayer membrane system was examined. Consisting of dodecanol (DD) this acceptor system was used to simulateExpand
Release of Urea from Semisolid Formulations Using a Multilayer Membrane System
A method for the determination of in vitro release of urea from semisolid formulations using a multilayer membrane system (MMS) has been developed. The artificial model membranes consisted ofExpand