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An evolutionary theory of economic change
This study develops an evolutionary theory of the capabilities and behavior of business firms operating in a market environment. It includes both general discussion and the manipulation of specificExpand
Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development
To HAVE the incentive to undertake research and development, a firm must be able to appropriate returns sufficient to make the investment worthwhile. The benefits consumers derive from an innovation,Expand
Investment in humans, technological diffusion and economic growth
Most economic theorists have embraced the principle that certain kinds of education—the three R's, vocational training, and higher education—equip a man to perform certain jobs or functions, orExpand
The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research
  • R. Nelson
  • Economics
  • Journal of Political Economy
  • 1 June 1959
R ECENTLY, orbiting evidence of unAmerican technological competition has focused attention on the role played by scientific research in our political economy. Since Sputnik it has become almost triteExpand
On the Sources and Significance of Interindustry Differences in Technological Opportunities
The set of technological opportunities in a given industry is one of the fundamental determinants of technical advance in that line of business. We examine the concept of technological opportunityExpand
Why do firms differ, and how does it matter?
In virtually all economic analyses, differences among firms in the same line of business are repressed, or assumed to reflect differences in the market environments that they face. In contrast, forExpand
National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis
This anthology examines national systems of technical innovation. An introductory chapter provides an overview of the principal topics in current discussion of industrial and technology policy.Expand
The Oxford handbook of innovation
This handbook looks to provide academics and students with a comprehensive and holistic understanding of the phenomenon of innovation. Innovation spans a number of fields within the social sciencesExpand
Recent Evolutionary Theorizing About Economic Change
Economists long have employed evolutionary language and metaphors to characterize economic change, but until recently have largely eschewed the expression of explicit evolutionary theories. Over theExpand