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Nine Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning
First, we propose a theory of multimedia learning based on the assumptions that humans possess separate systems for processing pictorial and verbal material (dual-channel assumption), each channel isExpand
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Cognitive Principles of Multimedia Learning: The Role of Modality and Contiguity
Students viewed a computer animation depicting the process of lightning. In Experiment 1, they concurrently viewed on-screen text presented near the animation or far from the animation, orExpand
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Interactive Multimodal Learning Environments
What are interactive multimodal learning environments and how should they be designed to promote students’ learning? In this paper, we offer a cognitive–affective theory of learning with media fromExpand
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A Split-Attention Effect in Multimedia Learning: Evidence for Dual Processing Systems in Working Memory
Students viewed a computer-generated animation depicting the process of lightning formation (Experiment 1) or the operation of a car's braking system (Experiment 2). In each experiment, studentsExpand
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Aids to computer-based multimedia learning
Computer-based multimedia learning environments — consisting of pictures (such as animation) and words (such as narration) — offer a potentially powerful venue for improving student understanding.Expand
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The Case for Social Agency in Computer-Based Teaching: Do Students Learn More Deeply When They Interact With Animated Pedagogical Agents?
College students (in Experiment 1) and 7th-grade students (in Experiment 2) learned how to design the roots, stem, and leaves of plants to survive in 8 different environments through a computer-basedExpand
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Decreasing Cognitive Load for Novice Students: Effects of Explanatory versus Corrective Feedback in Discovery-Based Multimedia
This paper examines one of the potentialroles that software agents may have inhelping students reduce working memoryload while learning from discovery-basedmultimedia environments:Expand
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Animation as an Aid to Multimedia Learning
How can animation be used to promote learner understanding of scientific and mathematical explanations? In this review, we examine the role of animation in multimedia learning (including multimediaExpand
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A coherence effect in multimedia learning: The case for minimizing irrelevant sounds in the design of multimedia instructional messages.
The authors tested the recommendation that adding bells and whistles (in the form of background music and/or sounds) would improve the quality of a multimedia instructional message. In 2 studies,Expand
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Verbal redundancy in multimedia learning: When reading helps listening
Three studies investigated whether and under what conditions the addition of on-screen text would facilitate the learning of a narrated scientific multimedia explanation. Students were presented withExpand
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